Overview of Gender Change Surgery Treatment India

Gender change surgery is the surgical procedure in which transgender people change their gender according to their self-identification. People change their reproductive organs to feel more confident about themselves and for the sake of improved mental health. This is also known as gender affirmation or sex reassignment surgery. Gender change surgery is usually performed when people feel distressed about the mismatching of gender at birth and their self-identification. In gender change surgery, a single surgery or a combination of surgeries of the face, chest, and bottom can be performed according to the preference of the person undergoing the surgical process. Even after surgery, there is a requirement for some medications to complete the procedure of gender change. Like other surgical options, gender change surgery is also linked with many risk factors and complications. So gender change surgery is performed only when there are more benefits than the chances of risk factors. About 92-99% of people become satisfied after the surgery and have an improved life quality. However, gender change surgery also has psychological effects. So people need to take mental therapy before and after the surgical process of gender change procedure.

Types of Gender Change Surgery Treatment India

There are several types of gender change surgeries that individuals may consider:

  • Mastectomy
  • Breast Augmentation
  • Vaginoplasty
  • Phalloplasty
  • Metoidioplasty
  • Facial Feminization Surgery (FFS)
  • Voice Surgery
  • Adam's Apple Reduction (Tracheal Shave)
  • Body Contouring Surgery

Chest Surgery (Top Surgery)

Mastectomy: In this surgery, breast tissues are removed and then reshaping of the chest is performed to create a flatter appearance for transgender men.
Breast Augmentation: Transgender women may undergo breast augmentation where the breast implants are used to give them a more feminine look.

Genital Surgery (Bottom Surgery)

Vaginoplasty: This surgery is typically chosen by transgender women and involves the creation of a vagina by using male reproductive organ tissue. It may also include procedures to create structures that are only present in females.
Phalloplasty: This surgery involves constructing a male organ by using tissue from other parts of the body. It is a complex procedure that can involve multiple stages.

Facial Feminization Surgery (FFS)

Facial Feminine Surgery includes a variety of surgical procedures that help change facial features to achieve a more feminine appearance. This can involve procedures such as brow contouring, and nose and jaw reshaping.

Voice Surgery

Some transgender individuals can also go for voice surgery to change the pitch and resonance of their voice to be more like their self-gender identification.

Adam's Apple Reduction (Tracheal Shave)

This surgical procedure involves the reduction of the prominence of the Adam's apple to achieve a more feminine appearance.

Body Contouring Surgery

These surgeries are used after the primary surgery of gender change. Body contouring procedures like liposuction and fat grafting can help transgender individuals achieve a more feminine or masculine body shape.

Procedure of Gender Change Surgery

The procedure of gender change surgery is described below:

Anesthesia: Anesthesia is administered to ensure the comfort of the patient during surgery. The patient was unconscious throughout the surgery.

Surgical procedure: The type of surgical technique is selected according to the preference of the patient and the suggestion of the healthcare provider.

Incision: The surgeon makes an incision according to the type of surgical process. The surgeon then removes extra tissues and rearranges the structure.

Wound Closure and Dressing: After completing the necessary changes, the surgeon closes the incisions by using sutures, and dressings are applied to the surgical sites to protect them and help in the healing process.

Recovery: The recovery can vary from individual to individual. Some patients may experience delayed wound healing.

Cost of Gender change surgery in India

The cost of gender change surgery in India ranges from 2400 USD to 8400 USD. The cost can vary according to the additional number of surgeries after gender change surgery. Facial procedures, chest augmentation, and bottom surgeries can increase the cost of gender change surgery. The cost of gender change surgery is relatively lower in India than in any other developing country. 

Treatment Costs in India Min in USD Max in USD
Gender Change Surgery 2400 USD 8400 USD
Facial Surgery 1900 USD 2500 USD
Breast Implants 1500 USD 1900 USD

Symptoms and Risk factors

Indications of Gender Change Surgery

Some of the conditions in which gender change surgery is performed are:

  • Persistent Gender disagreeing
  • Mental and Emotional challenges
  • Hormone Therapy Readiness
  • Real-Life Experience (RLE) Completion
  • Capacity to Give Informed Consent
  • Psychological Evaluation Clearance
  • Stable Mental Health
  • Social Support
  • Legal Age of Consent
  • Hormone Therapy Stabilization
  • Dissatisfaction with Current body structure
  • Desire for Physical Alignment with Gender Identity
  • Comprehensive Medical Assessment

Risk factors for Gender change surgery

Some of the risk factors associated with gender change are as follows:

Unsatisfactory Results

There is a risk of undesired and unsatisfactory results of the surgery in terms of appearance and function for the patient.

Nerve Damage

Surgery can cause nerve damage in the area under surgery. This can lead to weakness and sensory changes in the area in which the nerve is damaged.


Scarring is common after surgery but it can vary according to the healing process of each individual. Poor wound healing can lead to permanent scarring.

Blood Clots

After surgery, lack of movement can increase the risk of blood clot formation which can lead to even more serious complications.

Revision Surgery

Some patients may require additional surgeries to manage the complications or to achieve the desired results.

Psychological Impact

Gender change surgery also has psychological effects. They can be positive or negative but they can affect the mental health of a patient.


Surgical sites can become infected during or after the surgery. Some medications are used to lower this risk.

Medical Conditions

Pre-existing medical conditions can increase surgical risks and can also affect the healing process.

Hormonal and Metabolic Changes

Hormone therapy and surgery can lead to changes in metabolism and other functions of the body which can affect the long-term health of a patient.

Social Reactions

Some individuals have to face negative social reactions or discrimination after undergoing gender change surgery. It can negatively affect the mental health of patients.

Financial Costs

Gender change surgeries can be expensive, and the financial burden might be a problem for some individuals.

Treatment Costs for Gender Change Surgery

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FAQ's of Gender Change Surgery Treatment in India