Overview of Hydrocephalus Treatment India

Hydrocephalus is a condition in which excess fluid accumulates in the cavities of the brain. This fluid buildup in the brain exerts a lot of pressure on the tissues of the brain and also increases the size and appearance of the head. Normally, the fluid is present in the brain and spinal cord. But when the fluid increases, it creates a force on the structures and can lead to abnormal functioning of the brain and spinal cord. Hydrocephalus is mostly common in older people and infants but it can happen at any age. Different types of management techniques are used for hydrocephalus according to the need and suitability of the patient. Symptoms of hydrocephalus can be different for each patient. The main cause of the hydrocephalus is the blockage of fluid that flows in the brain and spinal cord. However, the blockage can happen due to different reasons. Some risk factors of hydrocephalus can be avoided to prevent the disease. Hydrocephalus comes with a lot of complications that can affect a patient physically and psychologically which compromise the patient’s life quality. So it is important to manage the disease as early as possible to avoid life-threatening conditions.

Types of Hydrocephalus Treatment India

Some of the types of treatments used for the management of hydrocephalus are:

  • Shunt Insertion
  • Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy 
  • Medication Management
  • Neuroendoscopy
  • Antiepileptic Drugs 
  • Treatment of Underlying Cause

Shunt Insertion

Shunt insertion surgery is the most commonly used treatment for hydrocephalus. In this surgical procedure, surgeons may insert a shunt system to drain excess fluid away from the brain to another part of the body. Most of the time fluid is drained into the abdominal cavity. 

Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is also a surgical procedure where a small hole is made in the floor of the part of the brain. It allows the fluid to move more freely inside the brain cavity.

Medical Management

In some cases of hydrocephalus, some medications are used to remove excess fluid present in the body through the urine. This medical management is mostly used for older patients with hydrocephalus.


In cases where the hydrocephalus is not so severe or the underlying cause of hydrocephalus is temporary, close monitoring is an option where doctors observe the condition of the patient without any treatment.


Neuroendoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that involves the use of a camera to visualize and treat conditions within the cavities of the brain.

Epilepsy Management

Epilepsy is one of the complications of hydrocephalus. For the management of epilepsy in patients with hydrocephalus, some medications are used to control seizures and other symptoms.

Treatment of Underlying Cause

For the complete cure of hydrocephalus, it is important to treat the underlying cause of the disease. This may involve the treatment of infections, tumors, or other medical conditions.

Diagnosis of Hydrocephalus Treatment India

Some of the methods for the diagnosis of hydrocephalus are as follows:

Physical Examination

A physical examination may be performed by the doctor to assess any symptoms and signs related to the brain. These symptoms may include changes in reflexes, muscle strength, and coordination.

Imaging Studies

CT Scan (Computed Tomography): CT scans provide detailed pictures of the brain and also help to identify the enlargement of cavities of the brain due to the blockage of fluid.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): MRI scans also provide detailed pictures of the brain and can also provide some additional information about the cause and severity of hydrocephalus.

Cerebral Angiography

In some cases, this test is performed to check the flow of fluid inside the cavities of the brain and to check any abnormality of vessels inside the brain that can be the cause of hydrocephalus.

Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap)

This test involves the removal of a small amount of fluid from the lower back. Analysis of this fluid can help to diagnose and differentiate between various causes of hydrocephalus.

Neuropsychological Evaluation

In cases of hydrocephalus, a special test is performed to evaluate the memory, concentration, and other cognitive abilities of patients that can be disturbed due to the condition of hydrocephalus.


In some cases, the pressure inside the brain is normal after hydrocephalus. In this condition, doctors only monitor the patient closely without any medication or surgical treatment.

Cost of Hydrocephalus Treatment in India

The cost of Hydrocephalus treatment in India ranges from 1550 USD to 2500 USD. The cost can vary according to the type of treatment used for an individual patient. The cost can also vary according to the complications of the procedure and the skills of a surgeon.

Treatment Costs in India Min in USD Max in USD
Hydrocephalus Treatment 1865 USD 2486 USD
VP Shunting 1598 USD 2131 USD
Ventriculostomy 1811 USD 2415 USD

Symptoms and Risk factors

Symptoms of hydrocephalus can be different for infants and older adults. Some of the symptoms associated with hydrocephalus are:


  • Enlarged Head
  • Swelling of the soft spot on the head
  • Vomiting
  • Irritability
  • Eyes in a Downward direction
  • Poor Muscle control

Children and Adults:

  • Headache
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Blurred vision or Double Vision
  • Changes in Mental Function
  • Difficulty in Walking
  • Incontinence of urination

Risk factors of Hydrocephalus

Some of the risk factors that are associated with hydrocephalus are:

Congenital Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus can be present at birth which is often due to abnormalities in the development of the brain. 

Premature Birth

Babies born in premature conditions are at greater risk of developing hydrocephalus after birth.

Infections during Pregnancy

Infections during pregnancy can be the major risk factor for babies born with hydrocephalus. For example, mothers with rubella infection at the time of delivery increase the risk of hydrocephalus.

Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Infants

Sometimes bleeding occurs in the cavities of the brain in infants. This complication can increase the risk of hydrocephalus.

Neural Tube Defects

Conditions where the neural tube does not close properly during the development of the baby in the mother's womb can also increase the risk of hydrocephalus.


Infections of the layers or coverings around the brain and spinal cord can be a major risk factor for the development of hydrocephalus.

Traumatic Brain Injury

Severe head injuries that result in damage to brain tissue or blockage of the normal flow of fluid inside the cavities of the brain can cause hydrocephalus.


Brain tumors particularly those that are located near the part of the brain where fluid is present can obstruct the normal flow of fluid which can lead to hydrocephalus.


In older adults, normal pressure hydrocephalus can develop without any known cause. The risk of normal pressure hydrocephalus increases with age.

Treatment Costs for Hydrocephalus

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