Overview of Allogeneic Treatment India

Bone marrow allogeneic treatment is used for the patients who have damaged blood forming cells in the bone marrow either due to aggressive treatments like chemotherapy or by some disease which affects the bone marrow or blood cells. In this treatment, the healthy stem cells which form the blood cells are donated to the patient with damaged blood forming cells. The donor in this treatment can be a family member or totally unrelated member with identical genetics as the patient. The donor which is totally unrelated may cause more complications than the donor who is a close family member. It is also known as allogeneic stem cell transplantation or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Although it can cure bone marrow disease and even can be used to treat deadly cancers, it has some risks and complications associated with it. In rare cases, bone marrow allogeneic treatment can be the cause of death due to failure of the transplant. So the bone marrow allogeneic treatment is only used when there are more benefits of this procedure to patients than risks. The allogeneic treatment also has an advantage that these cells can help in killing remaining cancer cells after the procedure. The success of the bone marrow allogeneic treatment usually depends on the donor-recipient match, the overall health of the patient, and the management of complications after allogeneic treatment.

Types of Allogeneic Treatment India

There are 3 main types of bone marrow allogeneic treatment. These are:

  • Related Donor Transplant
  • Unrelated donor Transplant
  • Cord Blood Transplant

Related Donor Transplant

In this type of transplant, the stem cells are used from a donor who is a close family member of a patient. Donor can be a father, mother or sibling. Other members of the family can be a suitable match sometimes. Donor transplants who are related often have a higher chance of a successful transplant due to the genetic similarity between the donor and recipient.

Unrelated Donor Transplant

Stem cells can also be obtained from an unrelated donor who has the same genetics as the recipient. This type of transplant requires a search through national and international registries to find a suitable match. The unrelated donor transplant has become more common with the development of large donor registries and improved matching techniques.

Cord Blood Transplant

Stem cells can also be obtained from the umbilical cord blood of a newborn baby. These stem cells are collected and stored in cord blood banks. Cord blood transplants are an alternative option when a suitable related or unrelated donor is not available. The advantage of cord blood is its relatively low requirement for HLA matching, which increases the chances of finding a suitable match. However, the number of stem cells in a cord blood unit is limited, which may require the use of two or more units for an adult recipient.

Procedure of Bone Marrow Allogeneic Treatment

The general overview of the bone marrow allogeneic treatment is described below:

Evaluation before Transplant

Before the transplant, the recipient undergoes a thorough assessment to evaluate their overall health and determine their suitability for the procedure. This includes physical exams, blood tests, imaging studies, and specialized tests to understand the extent of cell damage and assess organ function.

Donor Selection and Compatibility Testing

A suitable donor is chosen, typically a close family member or an unrelated individual with the closest possible tissue match. Compatibility is determined by testing blood samples from both the recipient and potential donor for HLA matching.

Preoperative Preparation

This involves high-dose chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. This is used for the recipient's diseased bone marrow to suppress their immune system. So that there will be less chances of rejection of a transplant.

Stem Cell Collection

The donor's stem cells are collected and then the donor may receive growth factor injections to stimulate stem cell production. Blood is drawn from the donor, and a machine separates out the stem cells. The remaining blood components are returned to the donor's body. The collected stem cells are then processed and prepared for transplantation.

Transplantation

The prepared stem cells injected into the veins of a patient which then travel through blood to reach bone marrow. This works similarly as blood transfusion.

Engraftment and Recovery

With the passage of time, the transplanted stem cells continue to multiply and replace the diseased bone marrow of the patient. This process, known as engraftment, involves the production of new blood forming cells. During this period, patients also feel some symptoms like fatigue and infections that should be managed by the use of some specific medications.

Diagnosis of Allogeneic Treatment India

Cost of Bone Marrow Allogeneic Treatment in India

The cost of allogeneic bone marrow transplant in India is generally lower as compared to other countries. The range for the cost of the Bone marrow allogeneic treatment in India can vary from 9,600 USD to 36,000 USD. Additionally, the medications in India that are required after the treatment are generally more affordable compared to other countries.

Cost of different procedure of bone marrow allogeneic treatment in India:

Treatment Cost in India Min in USD Max in USD
Unrelated donor Transplant 65000 USD 80000 USD
Related Donor Transplant 20000 USD 40000 USD

Symptoms and Risk factors

Some risk factors of bone marrow allogeneic treatment are:

Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) 

A major risk of allogeneic transplantation is the occurrence of GVHD. GVHD is an immune response of the transplanted cells which attacks the recipient's healthy tissues. The risk is less with related donor allogeneic transplant.

Infections

There are more chances of developing the infections due to low immunity of the patient.

Graft Failure or Rejection

Sometimes, the transplanted cells fail to form blood cells in bone marrow. Graft rejection occurs when the recipient's immune system attacks and rejects the transplanted cells. Both graft failure and rejection can lead to insufficient production of blood cells and require additional treatment or a repeat transplant.

Organ Damage

The chemotherapy and radiation therapy can cause harm to organs such as the lungs, liver, heart, and kidneys. This can result in short-term or long-term complications.

Infertility

The transplant process can cause temporary or permanent infertility in both male and females. It is important to discuss fertility preservation options prior to undergoing the treatment.

Secondary Cancers

There exists a small risk of developing secondary cancers, such as leukemia or solid tumors, as a consequence of the treatment. 

Side Effects of Medications

The use of medications before and after the transplant which includes immunosuppressant and antibiotics, can lead to risk of liver problems, increase chances of infections and stomach problems.

Indications of Bone Marrow Allogeneic Treatment

Here are some indications for bone marrow allogeneic treatment:

  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
  • Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)
  • Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
  • Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs)
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Fanconi Anemia
  • Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)
  • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
  • Thalassemia
  • Sickle Cell Disease

Top Hospitals for Allogeneic in India

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Max Super Speciality Hospital Dehradun Dehradun,India

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Burjeel Medical Hospital City Abu Dhabi,UAE

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Manipal Hospital, Mysore Bengaluru,India

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Manipal Hospital, Pune Pune,India

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Manipal Hospital, Jaipur Jaipur,India

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Top Doctors for Allogeneic in India

Empower your Health with the Expertise of Leading Medical Professionals.

Dr. Dharma Choudhary

Department of Cancer, Oncology & Bone Marrow Transplant

Senior Director

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Dr. Ayla Gokmen

Department of Hematology

Specialist

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Dr. Seema Gonsalves

Department of Pulmonology

Consultant

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Dr. Suneela Nayak

Department of Pulmonology

Consultant

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Treatment Costs for Allogeneic

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Allogeneic - Frequently Asked Questions

In an allogeneic stem cell transplantation, healthy blood-forming cells are collected from donors and transferred to the patient's body. These cells replace patients stem cells that are destroyed by intensive treatment.

The Allogenic Stem Cell Transplant Recovery time varies from patient to patient. Most patients start doing daily activities in about 3 months.

With the advanced techniques and treatments, the survival rate has improved over years.

In autologous transplants, a healthy stem cell is collected from the patient's body and given back after the treatment. In an allogeneic transplant, the healthy stem cells are collected from a matched related or unrelated donor.

The procedure may help to live longer and also require some lifestyle changes. These changes include avoiding cigarettes, cigars, marijuana, and other tobacco products.

Only a few patients lose their weight during the transplantation or in recovery time.

The side effects of stem cell therapy include mouth and throat pain, nausea and vomiting, infection, bleeding and transfusions, Graft failure, and more

Depending on the type of procedure, the cost of a stem cell transplant varies and also based on the country

In some cases, a stem cell transplant might not work. The reason behind this is that donors cells have been rejected by the patients body. In this case, it will stop the new immune system from developing.

Stem cell therapy can be used to cure spinal cord injuries, Parkinson's disease, type 1 diabetes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, cancer, burns, osteoarthritis, and other non-cancerous diseases.

Patients have 25% chances of having the same tissue type as sibling/s.

The procedure relieves pain for more than a decade. Moreover, it provides permanent repair in some soft tissue injuries.

More than 35% of patients may experience fatigue for at least 1 year after the procedure.

There are several foods that patients need to avoid after an Allogenic Stem Cell Transplant procedure. These include undercooked meat, seafood, raw milk, unwashed fresh fruits, vegetables and uncooked sprouts.

There are various factors that contribute to the price of Allogenic Stem Cell Transplant. It depends on the condition of the patient, the number of treatments required, and the complexity of the procedure.

To find a stem cell match, doctors perform a blood test for HLA typing or tissue typing. The surface of the blood cells of donor and patient are compared after that.

Doctors recommend avoiding alcohol for at least 4 weeks before and a few months after the Allogeneic Transplant procedure.