Overview of Anal Cancer Treatment India

Anal cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the anal canal. The anal canal is the tube-like structure that is present at the end of the rectum through which the stool passes. It is a very rare type of disease. In anal cancer, abnormal cells start multiplying without any control and also disturbs the normal function. Anal cancer can cause symptoms according to the stages of cancer and may range from mild to severe. There are different types of treatment options and treatment is always used according to the condition of the patient and the response of a specific treatment. In some cases, a combination of treatments is used in which more than one treatment option is used simultaneously to increase the effectiveness. Anal cancer can occur due to different causes and it also has different risk factors. Anal cancer can create many complications when it is in the last stage of disease. It can spread to other different parts of the body. This complication can make the anal cancer difficult to treat. But there are some methods through which anal cancer can be prevented like having a healthy lifestyle, quitting smoking, and treating infections in the body, especially sexually transmitted infections. 

Types of Anal Cancer Treatment India

Some of the types of treatment for anal cancer include:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Target drug therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Surgery
  • Palliative care

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy involves the use of medications that kill the cancer cells by limiting their growth. Chemotherapy treatment is usually used in more aggressive types of cancers. It is often used in combination with radiation therapy for more effective results.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays which target and destroy cancer cells in the anal canal. Radiation therapy can be given by the machine outside the body or the radioactive substance can be placed inside the tumor. Radiation therapy can be given before surgery to shrink the size of the tumor.

Targeted Drug Therapy

Targeted drug therapy is an advanced technique in the treatment of anal cancer. Specific drugs are used to target particular proteins that are involved in the growth of cancer cells. 

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy prepares the body's natural defense system to recognize and attack cancer cells. These drugs specifically kill the abnormal cancer cells and reduce the chances of damage to healthy cells.

Surgery

Surgery is performed when it is possible to remove the tumor. It is most often used in the early stages for the complete removal of the tumor or it can be used to treat the symptoms of a patient when cancer has spread to distant parts of the body. 

Palliative Care

Palliative care is an important part of anal cancer treatment. It is used when a patient has an advanced stage of disease and cannot be treated completely. When the patient is terminally ill, palliative care focuses on improving the quality of life of the patient by managing symptoms such as pain, discomfort, and side effects of chemotherapy treatment.

Diagnosis of Anal Cancer Treatment India

Some of the diagnostic methods for anal cancer are as follows:

Medical History and Physical Examination

The doctor can suspect the diagnosis of anal cancer by taking the medical history of a patient. Physical examination can also help in diagnosing the disease. During this examination, the doctor asks about the symptoms of the patient and any medical history that can be associated with the disease.

Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)

A digital rectal exam is an examination in which the doctor inserts two fingers with a gloved hand into the anal canal to feel for any abnormalities or tumors. The feeling of a lump in the area can help make a diagnosis.

Anoscopy

Anoscopy is a procedure in which a short tube with a camera is inserted into the anus to allow the doctor to directly see the anal canal and other structures. 

Biopsy

The biopsy test is performed to confirm the diagnosis of anal cancer. In this test, a small sample of tissue is obtained during other tests and then tested in laboratories for the confirmation of the presence of cancer cells in the tumor.

Imaging Tests

Some imaging tests are also performed to check the extent of cancer cells. These tests help provide information about the involvement of surrounding tissues and structures. These imaging tests may include computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and positron emission tomography (PET) scans.

Cost of Anal Cancer Treatment in India

The cost of anal cancer treatment in India ranges from 550 USD to 2000 USD. The cost can vary according to the type of treatment used for an individual patient. The cost can also vary according to the complications of the procedure and the skills of a surgeon.

Treatment Costs in India Min in USD Max in USD
Anal Cancer Treatment 799 USD 1065 USD
Chemotherapy 532 USD 710 USD per session

Symptoms and Risk factors

Some of the symptoms of anal cancer are as follows:

  • Rectal bleeding
  • Anal pain or discomfort
  • Anal itching
  • Changes in bowel habits
  • Lump or mass near the anus
  • Abnormal discharge from the anus
  • Pain during bowel movements
  • Unexplained weight loss

Risk Factors of Anal Cancer

Some of the risk factors that are associated with anal cancer are:

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection

Human papillomavirus is a type of virus that transfers from one individual to another through sexual intercourse. Sexual intercourse with a person who has this infection can increase the risk of anal cancer.

Anal Intercourse

Unusual sexual activities can also increase risk such as anal intercourse can increase the risk of anal cancer. 

Weakened Immune System

People who have compromised immunity are at greater risk of developing any disease. These people who have low immunity are also at risk of cancers including anal cancer.

Smoking

Smoking is also associated with an increased risk of anal cancer. The harmful chemicals present in cigarettes are the major risk factors for some cancer types.

Age

Anal cancer is more common in old age people. So the risk of anal cancer increases as the age increases.

History of Cancer

People who are diagnosed previously with some other type of cancer are also at risk of anal cancer. The risk is higher if the previous cancer involves the vaginal or cervical area.

Multiple Sexual Partners

Having multiple sexual partners or having sexual partners who have had multiple partners can increase the risk of sexually transmitted infection which is a major risk factor of anal cancer.

Personal or Family History

There is a positive correlation between a family history and the occurrence of the disease. So people who have close family members with anal cancer are at greater risk.

Treatment Costs for Anal Cancer

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FAQ's of Anal Cancer Treatment in India