Overview of Angioplasty And Stent Placement Treatment India

Angioplasty is a medical procedure that is used to open the blocked arteries of the heart by inflating the balloon at the site of the narrowed artery. It improved the blood flow without any major open heart surgery. Sometimes the blood vessels become blocked due to narrow space or by the accumulation of fat inside the artery. The angioplasty opens these arteries with the help of balloons and improves the function of the heart by restoring the blood flow. After the opening of these blocked arteries, the stents are placed on that site to keep the artery open and prevent the blocking again. The stent placed inside the artery will become part of the tissue in 5 to 8 months. The stent placement helps to prevent the blockage of arteries again without any need for further treatment. However, angioplasty and stent placement are effective in improving the flow of blood to the heart but they still can't be performed on every patient with the diseased artery due to the complications of an individual patient. Angioplasty and stenting placement also carry some risks that should be prevented as much as possible to speed up the recovery process after the procedure. There is a restriction on doing stressful activities after the angioplasty and stent placement for some time. After that, a gradual increase in physical activities can be continued according to the instructions of the surgeon.

Types of Angioplasty And Stent Placement Treatment India

Some of the types of angioplasty and stent placement are as follows:

  • Balloon Angioplasty
  • Coronary Stent Placement (including Bare-Metal Stents and Drug-Eluting Stents)
  • Angioplasty with Rotational Atherectomy
  • Angioplasty with Cutting Balloon
  • Angioplasty with Laser
  • Directional Atherectomy

Balloon Angioplasty

This is a common procedure where a deflated balloon-tipped catheter is threaded into the narrowed or blocked artery. Once in position, the balloon is inflated to compress the narrow artery against the walls. It widens the vessel and improves blood flow.

Coronary Stent Placement

After balloon angioplasty, a stent may be inserted to help keep the artery open. Stents provide structural support to the artery and prevent it from narrowing again. There are two main types of stents:
Bare-Metal Stents (BMS): These stents are not coated with medicines and help to maintain the opening of vessels. They might be used in certain cases.
Drug-Eluting Stents (DES): These stents are coated with medication that gradually releases into the artery and prevents the growth of tissue that can block the artery again.

Angioplasty with Rotational Atherectomy

In some cases, where the deposition of fat becomes hard and resistant to regular balloon angioplasty, a rotational atherectomy device is used. This device has a small, rotating tip that shaves away the hard depositions of fat inside the artery to create a pathway for improved blood flow.

Angioplasty with Cutting Balloon

A cutting balloon has small blades on its surface. It is inflated like a regular balloon but also cuts into the deposition of fat. It makes it easier to compress and expand the artery.

Angioplasty with Laser

In laser angioplasty, a laser catheter is used to break down the deposition of fat in the artery and restore its blood flow. This method is less commonly used due to the availability of other effective techniques.

Directional Atherectomy

Similar to rotational atherectomy, this procedure involves using a cutting device to remove the deposition of fat from the artery walls but it operates differently.

Procedure of angioplasty and stenting

Here is a general overview of the procedure of angioplasty and stenting:

Anesthesia and incision: Anesthesia is administered to the patient to limit the discomfort and a small incision is made, usually in the groin area, and a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel. The catheter is guided through the blood vessels to reach the site of the blockage.

Angiography: The procedure of angiography is performed in which the X-rays are used to see a clear image of the blood vessels to perform the angioplasty and stent placement.

Guidewire Placement: A guidewire is threaded through the catheter and directed to the blockage. 

Balloon Inflation: A balloon-tipped catheter is positioned at the blockage site. The balloon is inflated, compresses the fat deposition against the artery walls, and widens the vessel.

Stent Placement: Stent is delivered to the treatment site over the same catheter. The stent is expanded by inflating the balloon which presses it against the artery walls.

Balloon Deflation and Stent Deployment: The balloon is deflated and removed, leaving the stent in place to hold the artery open.

Catheter Removal: The catheter is carefully removed, and pressure is applied at the site of insertion of the catheter to prevent bleeding.

Closure: The incision site is closed with the help of sutures. The bandage is applied after the closure.

Cost of Angioplasty and Stenting in India

The cost of Angioplasty and Stenting in India ranges from 1400 USD to 2800 USD. The cost can vary according to the complication of each patient during the procedure. The cost can also vary according to the skill of the surgeon and the facilities that the hospital provides.

Treatment Costs in India Min in USD Max in USD
Coronary Angioplasty 2131 USD 2841 USD
Angioplasty-2 Stent 1865 USD 2486 USD
Angioplasty and Stent Placement 1971 USD 2628 USD
Angioplasty 1438 USD 1918 USD

Symptoms and Risk factors

Indications of angioplasty and stent

Some of the conditions where angioplasty and stenting can be helpful are:

  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • Stable Angina
  • Unstable Angina
  • Coronary Artery Restenosis
  • Carotid Artery Stenosis
  • Peripheral Artery Disease
  • Renal Artery Stenosis
  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Cerebral Artery Stenosis 

Risk factors of Angioplasty and Stenting

Some of the risk factors of angioplasty and stenting are as follows:

Bleeding and Hemorrhage

The procedure of angioplasty and stenting can lead to bleeding at the puncture site. The bleeding can also occur internally which can complicate the condition of the patient.

Blood Clots

There is a risk of the formation of blood clots at the stent site that can lead to blockage of blood flow and can worsen the condition of the patient.

Restenosis

There are some chances of Re-narrowing of the treated artery due to excessive tissue growth.

Artery Damage

There is a risk of damage to the artery walls during the procedure of angioplasty and stenting.

Allergic Reaction

In some patients, there is a risk of reaction to contrast dye or other materials used during the procedure.

Infection

There is a risk of infection at the puncture site or in the bloodstream. The infection can happen later after the procedure.

Kidney Damage

The contrast dye used in angioplasty can affect kidney function, particularly in those with already existing kidney issues.

Stroke

In some rare cases, there is also a risk of stroke during the stenting of arteries that leads to the brain.

Arrhythmias

Irregular heart rhythms can be a complication in some patients after angioplasty and stenting.

Radiation Exposure

Prolonged exposure to X-rays during the procedure can damage the cells and can create additional complications.

Treatment Costs for Angioplasty and Stent Placement

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