Overview of Brain Tumor Surgery Treatment in India

A brain tumor is a cluster of abnormal cell growth that forms in the brain. Brain tumors should be treated immediately as it is a life-threatening situation due to the sensitivity of brain tissues. Brain tumors can be treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, target drug therapy, and surgery. Surgery is the most common treatment of brain tumors. Brain tumors treated with surgery are just the surgical procedure in which the tumor is removed from the brain through the opening in the skull bone. Brain tumors are removed completely but in some cases, due to the damage of important brain tissues, some part of the brain tumor is removed only. Partial removal of the tumor allows the symptoms to be relieved. In rare cases, tumors cannot be removed partially. In that case, a small portion of tumor cells is obtained to test under laboratory conditions to examine the type of tumor cells. It helps to choose a treatment option for such types of complex tumors. During surgery of a brain tumor, advanced techniques are used to guide the surgeon during surgical procedures. Before brain tumor surgery, some medications are used to prepare patients with brain tumors for the surgery. Brain tumor surgery is a major surgery and often requires skills to perform because a small mistake can lead to permanent and irreversible damage to the brain.

Types of Brain Tumor Surgery Treatment in India

Some types of brain tumor surgery are:

  • Craniotomy
  • Endonasal Endoscopic Surgery
  • Stereotactic Biopsy
  • Shunt Placement
  • Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy (LITT)
  • Awake Craniotomy

Craniotomy

This is the most common method of brain tumor surgery. It involves creating an incision in the scalp and removing a part of the skull to access the tumor. The surgeon then carefully removes the tumor and preserves healthy brain tissue. After the tumor removal, the skull segment is usually reattached using plates and screws.

Endonasal Endoscopic Surgery

This procedure of brain tumors is specifically used for certain brain tumors and those at the base of the skull. This approach accesses the tumor through the nose and sinuses by using an endoscope. The lack of external incisions reduces complications and facilitates faster recovery.

Stereotactic Biopsy

This type of brain tumor surgery is for deep or inaccessible brain tumors. It is a stereotactic biopsy procedure. The procedure involves guiding a needle precisely into the tumor by using imaging techniques to obtain a tissue sample for diagnosis.

Shunt Placement

Brain tumors can lead to the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid, resulting in hydrocephalus. In such cases, a shunt is surgically inserted to drain excess fluid and relieve pressure on the brain.

Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy (LITT)

This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses laser energy to heat and destroy tumor tissue, commonly used for small, deep, or critical brain area tumors.

Awake Craniotomy

In cases where the tumor is near essential brain regions responsible for vital functions, an awake craniotomy may be performed. The patient is partially awake under the effect of local anesthesia which allows real-time brain function monitoring while removing the tumor.


Procedure of brain tumor surgery

The general overview of brain tumor surgery is as follows:

Preoperative Evaluation: Before the surgery, physical examination and clinical findings are performed to assess the condition of the patient. It also includes some tests.
Anesthesia: The anesthesia is administered so that the patient cannot feel discomfort or pain during the surgical procedure. In the case of awake craniotomy, the local anesthesia is used.
Head Positioning and Incision: The surgical team positions the head and makes an incision in the scalp according to the tumor's location and the chosen surgical approach.
Craniotomy: A small part of the skull is carefully removed to expose the brain, providing access to the tumor.
Brain Tumor Removal: Using specialized tools, the neurosurgeon goes through the brain tissue to reach and remove the tumor while minimizing damage to healthy brain areas.
Hemostasis and Closure: Bleeding is controlled, and the bone flap is repositioned and secured with plates and screws. The scalp incision is closed with sutures or staples.
Post-operative Care: The patient is closely monitored during the recovery phase. Medications are used for pain management, infection prevention, and to reduce brain swelling. 

Cost of Brain Tumor Surgery in India

The cost of brain tumor surgery in India ranges from ₹ 1,65,000 to ₹4,05,000. The cost can vary according to the condition of the patient and the complications of the surgical procedure. The cost can also vary according to the skill of the surgeon and the facilities of the hospital.

Brain Tumor Surgery Treatment Cost in India Min in INR Max in INR
Brain Tumor Surgery ₹ 1,75,000 ₹ 2,30,000
Craniotomy Surgery ₹ 2,90,000 ₹ 3,80,000
Stereotactic Surgery ₹ 2,80,000 ₹ 3,75,000

 

Symptoms & Risk Factors of Brain Tumor Surgery Treatment in India

Some of the indications of brain tumor surgery are:

  • Definitive Diagnosis of brain tumor
  • Tumor Removal
  • Decompression of brain tissue
  • Reducing Tumor Mass
  • Resecting High-Grade Tumors
  • Addressing Hydrocephalus
  • Relief of Seizures
  • Minimizing Neurological Deficits
  • Palliative Care

Risk factors of brain tumor surgery

Infection Risk

During a craniotomy, there is a risk of infection at the surgical site. Sometimes, infection appears late after the surgery.

Bleeding

There is a risk of bleeding during or after the procedure and it increases the risk of stroke and associated complications.

Brain Swelling

After surgery, the brain may experience swelling and edema as a response to the procedure. Swelling can increase pressure within the skull and may require additional treatments to manage.

Seizures

Some patients may experience seizures during or after the craniotomy due to the irritation of nerves in the brain during surgery.

Blood Clots

Blood clots can form anywhere in the body after surgery due to lack of movement. The clots can travel to major organs block the major blood vessels and produce complications.

Anesthesia Risks

General anesthesia carries risks of allergic reactions and infertility in young patients.

Cranial Nerve Damage

There is a risk of cranial nerve damage during the surgical procedure that can lead to issues with vision, hearing, or facial movements.

Recurrence

There is a risk of recurrence of a brain tumor if the tumor cells remain in the surrounding structure.

Treatment Costs for Brain Tumor Surgery

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FAQ's of Brain Tumor Surgery Treatment in India

The cheapest cost of brain tumor surgery in India ranges from ₹ 1,20,000 to ₹ 1,60,000.

The risk factors for brain tumor surgery include infection, bleeding, swelling, and recurrence of brain tumors.

The best hospitals for brain tumor surgery in India are: Apollo Hospitals, Chennai Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon

The other treatments for brain tumors include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and target drug therapy.