Overview of Cardiac Pacemaker Implant Treatment in India

When the heart beats irregularly and produces heartbeats that are too slow, then an electronic device called, the pacemaker is placed on the chest wall to make the beats regular. A cardiac pacemaker device is used to confirm that the heartbeats do not drop to a dangerously low rate. If the heart runs at a slower rate, then the electrical impulse is generated in the pacemaker and sent to the heart through the lead to make the heart beat normal. In some advanced types of pacemakers, specific heart diseases can be treated like when the heart is not pumping blood in sufficient amounts then these advanced pacemakers can be used to treat the condition. There are many precautions to follow after the pacemaker implant. For example, MRI is contraindicated in a person who has a pacemaker, or diathermy is restricted to a person who has a pacemaker. Although the cardiac pacemaker implant procedure is generally safe, it still carries some risks and complications that should be prevented or managed in time so that it cannot complicate the recovery phase. After a cardiac pacemaker implant, regular follow-up is necessary to confirm the proper functioning of the pacemaker. The doctor reviews the activity of the pacemaker and also can change the settings of the pacemaker if needed.

Types of Cardiac Pacemaker Implant Treatment in India

Some of the cardiac pacemakers that are used to implant are:

  • Single-Chamber Pacemaker
  • Dual-Chamber Pacemaker
  • Biventricular Pacemaker (CRT)
  • Rate-Responsive Pacemaker
  • Adaptive-Rate Pacemaker
  • Leadless Pacemaker
  • MRI-Compatible Pacemaker
  • Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (S-ICD)

Single-Chamber Pacemaker

This type of pacemaker is used to fix the irregular beats of the heart. It uses a wire in either the top or bottom of the heart to send electrical signals. It is useful in making the heartbeat at a regular rate.

Dual-Chamber Pacemaker

Dual-chamber Pacemaker uses wires in both the top and bottom of the heart to make sure the chambers of the heart work together properly. It helps to pump blood efficiently.

Biventricular Pacemaker (CRT)

The Biventricular Pacemaker has wires in three spots that work like a team. It helps to coordinate the rhythm of the heart, especially in people with heart failure in which the pumping action of the heart is compromised.

Rate-Responsive Pacemaker

Rate-Responsive pacemaker acts like a fitness tracker. This pacemaker speeds up or slows down the heart rate, like when we walk or rest, to keep it in a healthy range.

Adaptive-Rate Pacemaker

Adaptive-Rate Pacemaker is a clever pacemaker that knows when to speed up or slow down by learning from the rhythms of the heart and the activities of a person.

Leadless Pacemaker

Instead of wires, the leadless pacemaker has a tiny pacemaker device that is placed inside the heart and sends electrical signals. It is helpful to fix irregular heartbeats.

MRI-Compatible Pacemaker

An MRI-compatible pacemaker is a special pacemaker that is safe during a big-picture scan of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This is a powerful diagnostic tool that can allow doctors to see inside the body without harming the pacemaker.

Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (S-ICD)

S-ICD is an advanced type of pacemaker. This device helps to restart a dangerously fast heart. It is placed under the skin and is a very powerful protector against life-threatening heart rhythm problems.

Procedure of Cardiac Pacemaker Implants

Here is a general overview of the Cardiac Pacemaker Implantation procedure:

Anesthesia: The anesthesia is administered to reduce the effect of pain and discomfort during the surgery.
Incision: A small incision is made according to the skill of the surgeon. Mostly the incision is made on the chest wall just below the collarbone.
Vein Access: A venous is used to thread a thin, flexible tube (catheter) through the incision into a large vein.
Lead Placement: One or more leads are carefully guided through the vein into the heart. The leads are positioned in the appropriate heart chamber according to the type of pacemaker being implanted.
Lead Testing: Once the leads are in place, they are tested to ensure they are correctly positioned and can stimulate the rhythm of the heart or sense its activity.
Pocket Creation: A small pocket is created under the skin near the incision site. This pocket is made to place the pacemaker inside.
Pacemaker Implantation: The pacemaker generator, which contains the battery and electronic circuitry, is placed in the pocket and leads are attached to the pacemaker.
Closing Incision: The incision is closed with stitches or surgical adhesive, and a dressing is applied with some medications.
Recovery and Monitoring: After the procedure, the patient is monitored for a short period in a recovery area. Most patients can go home on the same day or the next day depending on the condition of the patient.

Cost of Cardiac Pacemaker Implantation Treatment in India

The cost of Cardiac Pacemaker implantation in India ranges from ₹ 1,70,000 to ₹ 3,30,000. The cost can vary according to the type of pacemaker being used in the surgical procedure. The cost can also vary according to the facilities of the hospital and the skill of the surgeon.

Cardiac Pacemaker implantation Cost in India Min in INR Max in INR
Permanent Pacemaker Implant-Double chamber ₹ 2,40,000 ₹ 3,20,000
Biventricular Pacing ₹ 2,20,000 ₹ 2,90,000
Permanent Pacemaker Implant-Single chamber ₹ 2,20,000 ₹ 2,90,000

 

Symptoms & Risk Factors of Cardiac Pacemaker implantation

Here are some common indications for cardiac pacemaker implantation:

  • Slow heart rate
  • Sick sinus syndrome
  • Atrioventricular (AV) block
  • Heart block
  • Bundle branch block
  • Heart failure with conduction abnormalities
  • Tachy-Brady syndrome
  • Long QT syndrome
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with conduction issues
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) for heart failure
  • Post-heart attack conduction problems
  • Prior complications or failures of previous pacemakers

Risk factors of Cardiac Pacemaker Implant

Some of the risk factors associated with Cardiac Pacemaker implants are as follows:

Infection

Like other surgeries, there is a risk of infection at the site of pacemaker implantation or anywhere in the body.

Bleeding and Hematoma

There is a risk of bleeding during and after the procedure. Sometimes the blood accumulates at the surgical site and can cause severe complications.

Lead Displacement or Fracture

The leads that are connected to the pacemaker to the heart can displace or break, which may require additional surgery or replacement.

Pneumothorax

During implantation, there is a small risk of damage to the lung. Air enters the chest cavity and can cause severe complications.

Allergic Reaction

Some patients may have allergic reactions to the materials used in the pacemaker or the leads.

Fluid Accumulation

Fluid can accumulate around the pacemaker or leads that can cause discomfort and affect the device's function.

Blood Vessel Damage

Blood vessels may be damaged during lead insertion. It can further cause complications of bleeding or hematoma.

Device Malfunction

Pacemakers can have technical issues or malfunctions that may require additional procedures or replacement.

Nerve or Muscle Stimulation

Improper lead placement can result in nerve or muscle stimulation and can cause discomfort and abnormal activities.

Scar Tissue Formation

Scar tissue can form around the leads during the healing process. The scar formation can further affect the normal functioning of the heart.

Treatment Costs for Cardiac Pacemaker Implant

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FAQ's of Cardiac Pacemaker Implant Treatment in India

Pacemaker implantation is generally safe with minimal risks and has become a routine procedure.

Recovery time varies, but patients often do normal activities within a few days after pacemaker implantation.

Modern pacemakers can last around 10 to 15 years or more, depending on usage and advancements in technology.

The cost of a cardiac pacemaker in India ranges from ₹ 1,70,000 to ₹ 3,30,000.