Overview of Cornea Transplant Treatment India

The cornea is the surface present on the front of the eye through which the light enters the eye and helps to see clearly. The cornea is transparent. When the surface of the cornea is damaged for any reason, it is replaced with a new surface cornea, which is known as a Cornea Transplant. A cornea transplant surgical procedure helps the patient in relieving symptoms like pain and seeing clearly. A cornea transplant surgical procedure also improves the appearance of the cornea surface. The damaged cornea is replaced with a new cornea which is obtained from a donor. Sometimes, the donor cornea may reject and the body's natural defense system can attack the cornea, which can further lead to complications. However corneal rejection can be prevented with the use of some specific medicine. Cornea transplant also has some other risk factors other than rejection of donor cornea. Some people restore their vision partially. However, it depends on the condition of the patient before the surgery. Recovery time also varies for each patient. It may take several weeks to months for a patient to heal after the surgical procedure of a cornea transplant. Most of the time the cornea transplant surgery is successful and can restore the vision of the patient.

Types of Cornea Transplant Treatment India

Some of the types of cornea transplant surgery are:

  • Penetrating Keratoplasty (PKP)
  • Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK)
  • Descemet's Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK)
  • Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK)
  • Keratoprosthesis

Penetrating Keratoplasty - PKP

This procedure involves a full full-thickness Cornea Transplant. This traditional method involves replacing the entire transparent surface of the cornea with a donor cornea. It is used to treat many conditions related to cornea and may help in restoring eye vision.

Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty - DALK

This procedure replaces only the outer layers of the cornea with a donor's tissue. It is suitable when the disease is limited to the front layers of the cornea. It is also known as a selective layer Cornea Transplant.

Endothelial Keratoplasty - EK

There are two subtypes of Endothelial Keratoplasty. These are:
DSAEK (Descemet's Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty): A thin layer of the cornea endothelium of the patient is replaced with the donor’s endothelium. This procedure is used when the disease is present in the outer layer of the corneal endothelium.
DMEK (Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty): This procedure is performed when the inner layer of endothelium needs to be replaced. In this procedure, only the inner membrane and endothelium are replaced with those from a donor.

Artificial Cornea (Keratoprosthesis)

When the donor is not available and the cornea from the human eye cannot be used, a synthetic cornea called a keratoprosthesis can be implanted. This is used for patients who cannot be treated with other traditional transplant procedures of cornea transplant.

Procedure of Cornea Transplant

The general overview of the Cornea Transplant is described below:

Donor Cornea Selection: A healthy donor cornea is carefully selected and tested for compatibility with the recipient to minimize the risk of rejection.

Anesthesia: Anesthesia is administered to ensure the patient's comfort during the procedure. The anesthesia can also reduce the effect of pain.

Surgical Technique: The surgeon makes an incision in the surface of the cornea according to the shape of the cornea and removes the damaged part. The donor cornea is then transplanted to the cornea of the patient.

Transplantation: After the transplantation of the cornea into the eye of the patient, the incision is closed with the help of sutures. In some cases, special types of techniques are used to help with corneal adhesion.

Stitching: Fine sutures are used to secure the donor cornea in place. These sutures remain in place for several months to keep the graft in place.

Post-Operative Care: The patient's eye is covered with a protective shield, and specific instructions are provided for post-operative care including medications to prevent infection, swelling, and pain.

Cost of Cornea Transplant in India

The cost of a cornea transplant in India ranges from 900 USD to 1300 USD. The cost can vary according to the type of technique used to perform the surgery. The cost can also vary according to the facilities of the hospital and the skills of a surgeon.  

Treatment Costs in India Min in USD Max in USD
Cornea Transplant 899 USD 1199 USD
Cornea Transplant 689 USD 923 USD
Eye Transplant 959 USD 1278 USD

Symptoms and Risk factors

Indications of Cornea Transplant

Some of the indications of a cornea transplant are as follows:

  • Corneal Scarring
  • Keratoconus
  • Corneal Degeneration
  • Corneal Ulcers
  • Corneal Infections
  • Corneal Edema
  • Corneal Thinning
  • Corneal Clouding
  • Corneal Trauma
  • Corneal Swelling
  • Corneal Irregularities
  • Corneal Scars from Previous Surgeries
  • Corneal Endothelial Dysfunction
  • Corneal Complications after other procedures
  • Corneal Hereditary Disorders
  • Corneal Complications from Contact Lens Wear

Risk Factors for Cornea Transplant

Some of the risk factors that are associated with cornea transplant procedures are:

Graft Rejection

The patient’s defense system may attack the donor cornea and try to reject it, which can lead to swelling and potential graft failure.

Infection

Infections can occur in the cornea that can spread and may complicate the recovery.

Astigmatism

A cornea transplant can lead to astigmatism which can cause distorted or blurry vision due to an irregular shape of the cornea.

Swelling

Fluid accumulation in the cornea can lead to swelling and reduced vision.

Increased Eye Pressure

Elevated pressure inside the eye can occur after transplant which can cause discomfort and vision changes.

Recurrence of Original Condition

In some cases, the original corneal condition may reoccur even after transplant.

Vision Loss

Complications during or after the surgery can result in vision loss instead of improvement.

Bleeding in the Eye

In rare cases, bleeding may occur inside the eye after surgery and can affect vision.

Corneal Perforation

The cornea might become weakened after the transplant which can lead to a risk of corneal damage or rupture.

Cataract Formation

There is a risk of development of cataracts in the lens of the eye after transplant which can lead to cloudy vision.

Epithelial Ingrowth

The outermost layer of the cornea can grow abnormally into the graft area and can affect the ability of vision.

Retinal Detachment

In some cases, the risk of retinal detachment may increase after a cornea transplant.

Secondary Inflammation

Swelling within the eye can occur after surgery and affect the overall health of the eye.

Steroid-Induced Side Effects

Some patients experience the adverse effects of medicines used during or after the cornea transplant. Medications used to prevent graft rejection such as steroids can have side effects like increased eye pressure.

Treatment Costs for Cornea Transplant

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FAQ's of Cornea Transplant Treatment in India