Overview of Knee Replacement Surgery Treatment

Total knee replacement is a surgical procedure in which a damaged knee joint is replaced with an artificial knee or prosthetic knee. Total knee replacement is performed for the individuals who are not able to even perform their daily activities due to pain or irritation. Their life becomes so inactive that it reduces their quality of life. They often get restricted to do activities in the social setting and withdraw their community based interactions. If non-surgical treatments and physical therapy fail to cure the pain or leg deformity, then the procedure of total knee replacement is used. Total knee replacement procedure was first performed in 1968 and until now the procedure is used by orthopedic surgeons, which makes it an effective and safe treatment for knee deformity. It is also known as total knee arthroplasty. However, it is very important to discuss the general health and conditions of an individual before taking the decision of total knee replacement. Although total knee replacement is an effective treatment, it still has a lifespan of 15-20 years. After that time, it may require the revision of the surgery. There is no need of being the specific age and weight to go through knee replacement. But the total knee replacement is often performed on the basis of the patient's low life quality, pain and activity limitations.

Types of Knee Replacement Surgery Treatment

The knee replacement procedure can be performed in various ways. And mostly the type of procedure which is selected is based on the individual’s presentation of the knee deformity. Some of the types are:

Conventional Total Knee Replacement

This is the most conventional form of total knee replacement. In this, the damaged bone is removed and cartilage from the thigh bone and shinbone and replaced with artificial implants made of metal and plastic.

Minimally Invasive Total Knee Replacement

In this technique, small incisions are made, and special kinds of tools are used to limit the damage to surrounding muscles and tissues. It is used to reduce postoperative pain and speed up the recovery process as compared to conventional surgery in which large incisions are made.

Computer-Assisted Total Knee Replacement

This procedure utilizes computer systems to help the surgeon to perform surgery with greater precision and accuracy. The technology provides real-time feedback, helping ensure optimal alignment and positioning of the prosthetic components.

Patient-Specific Total Knee Replacement

This involves creating implants that are specifically designed according to the patient’s joint deformity. It may include the use of preoperative imaging and advanced 3D modeling techniques to design implants that fit the patient's knee joint more accurately.

Gender-Specific Total Knee Replacement

Some manufacturers offer implants that are designed specifically to make room for bony differences between male and female knees. These implants consider factors such as bone size, shape, and soft tissue tension.

Partial Knee Replacement

This is also known as unicompartmental knee replacement. This procedure involves replacing only the damaged portion of the knee joint. It is suitable for patients with limited joint damage involving only a single compartment, and preserving the healthy bone and surrounding tissues.

Revision Total Knee Replacement

This type of surgery is performed when a previously implanted knee replacement fails or is displaced over time. It involves removing the old prosthesis and replacing it with a new one.

Procedure of Total Knee Replacement

Total knee replacement has some surgical steps described below:

Pre-operative assessment: In this step, the screening takes place in which the x-rays, blood tests and physical examination is performed to determine the extent of damage in the joint.

Anesthesia: the incision is performed under the effect of anesthesia which numbs the area under surgical procedure. It is used to limit the pain and irritation felt by the patient.

Bone reshaping: the damaged area at the end of thigh bone and the start of shin bone is removed by using a special kind of tool. It is for the accommodation of the new prosthetic knee.

Placement of implant: a metal cap is placed at the end of thigh bone and the metal plate at the start of shin bone, and sometimes a plastic spacer is used for the smooth movement in the joint.

Realignment of joints: the surgeon assesses the stability of the implants that can allow the movement. It is necessary for balance and optimal joint function.

Post-operative care: after the closure of incision, medications are used to prevent pain, infection and reduce the chances of blood clots. It is necessary to speed up the recovery process after knee replacement.

Rehabilitation: Physical therapy is necessary after the knee replacement and often begins after 2-3 days and lasts for several weeks and months. It helps to regain full range of movements in the joints. It helps to strengthen the muscles around the knee which takes part in the activities of daily living.

Cost of Knee Replacement in India

The cost of total knee replacement surgery in India can be between 4,000 and 10,000 USD. The actual price can vary according to the city, hospital, type of implant used, and condition of patient. 

Cost of Total Knee Replacement in Different cities of India

Treatment Cities in India Min in USD Max in USD
Bangalore 1824 USD 4920 USD
Delhi 1320 USD 4980 USD
Mumbai 960 USD 4860 USD
Gurgaon 1980 USD 5160 USD
Chennai 1560 USD 5160 USD
Hyderabad 2160 USD 5040 USD
Pune 900 USD 4980 USD
Kolkata 960 USD 6240 USD
Kochi 1620 USD 5220 USD

Cost of total knee replacement in the best hospitals of India

Treatment Hospitals in India Starting Cost in USD
Apollo Hospital 6000 USD
Apollo Hospital Chennai 6000 USD
Fortis Hospital 5000 USD
The Medanta 5500 USD


Symptoms & Risk factors of Knee Replacement Surgery Treatment

Indications for Total Knee Replacement

Here is a list of diseases and conditions for which total knee replacement may be used:

  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Post-traumatic arthritis
  • Avascular necrosis
  • Osteonecrosis
  • Gout
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Hemophilic arthritis
  • Septic arthritis
  • Connective tissue disorders affecting the knee joint
  • Bone dysplasia affecting the knee joint
  • Osteoporosis with severe joint degeneration
  • Tumors affecting the knee joint
  • Failed previous knee surgeries or interventions

Risk Factors Associated with Total Knee Replacement


After any surgery, the risk of infections is high. So proper medications to prevent any infection is necessary.

Blood Clots

Blood clots can develop in the legs and often travel to the heart and lungs that cause severe complications and sometimes death occurs.


The lack of mobility can cause the infection in lungs. So proper drainage and medications are required to prevent pneumonia.

Displacement of Prosthesis

Sometimes the prosthesis becomes loose and dislocates, which can lead to implant failure. A skillful procedure must be performed otherwise additional surgery is required.


In persons who have an allergy to metal, the metal implant can cause swelling, pain, fever and redness.

Damage to Nerve or Blood Vessels

The nerves and vessels sometimes become affected and cause numbness, pain and reduce blood supply to the joint which makes it difficult to heal after knee replacement.

Top Hospitals for Knee Replacement Surgery in India

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Aster Medcity Kochi,India

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VPS Lakeshore Hospital Kochi,India

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IBS Hospital - Institute of Brain & Spine New Delhi,India

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Max Multi Speciality Centre , Noida Noida,India

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Yashoda Hospitals Hyderabad,India

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Jaypee Hospitals, Noida, Uttar Pradesh India

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Metro Hospital Faridabad,India,

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Indraprastha Apollo Hospital New Delhi

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Metro Hospital Faridabad,India,

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Top Doctors for Knee Replacement Surgery in India

Empower your Health with the Expertise of Leading Medical Professionals.

Dr. B. K. Singh

Department of Orthopedics


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Dr. Ravi Sauhta

Department of Orthopedics

Chief and HOD

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Dr. Bhushan Nariani

Department of Orthopedics

Senior Director Joint Replacement

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Dr. Milind Sawant

Department of Orthopedics

Consultant – Orthopaedics

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Dr. Sachin Bhonsle

Department of Orthopedics

Consultant – Orthopaedics

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Treatment Costs for Knee Replacement Surgery

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Knee Replacement Surgery - Frequently Asked Questions

During the surgery the patient is given general anesthesia and other nerve blockers which prevent feeling in the entire body. Post the operation the pain may last for two weeks and you will be able to do regular activities after 6 weeks of physical therapy.

With new and advanced metals and procedures partial knee replacement surgery which is minimally invasive is the newest procedure for knee replacement.

The completion of a total knee replacement surgery which is a major surgery takes about 3 to 4 hours.

Yes, a total knee replacement surgery is a major one and a person should opt for it only after suggestions from a doctors.

In an ideal situation, with proper physical therapy a patient can bend their knee after a total knee replacement surgery in about 7 to 10 days.

The best age to have a knee replacement surgery is before 50. However, with advanced technology and care giving, the most common age of people opting for the surgery is between the age of 50 to 80.

A patient is required to stay in the hospital for 2 to 3 days post the operation. After that however, it is imperative that the patient undergoes physical treatment.

There are no disadvantages to a knee replacement but just like any other major surgery, it has certain risks that can be reduced with the right hospital and staff. These risks may include no reduction in pain even after the surgery, blood clotting and others.

For a patient to opt for total knee replacement they will have to be prescribed by a doctor. When the pain becomes too severe for them to do the regular activities and the medications stop working it is prudent to go for a surgery.

Doing physical therapy is extremely important because it is important to recover after the surgery. If a patient does not do the required physical therapy and exercises there is decrease of blood flow which can negatively affect the healing process.