Overview of Multiple Myeloma Treatment India

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer of the bone marrow. In multiple myeloma, the white blood cells which are part of the plasma cells, grow uncontrollably. Normally white blood cells produce the antibodies that fight against the harmful antigens in our body. But in multiple myeloma, the excess of white blood cells produces antibodies without any control and this may lead to destruction of healthy cells in the bone marrow. The abnormal antibodies form in the body start to accumulate in the body and become the cause of damage to the organs. For example, the abnormal proteins formed in the bone marrow can damage the kidney. Sometimes, multiple myeloma does not grow aggressively and doctors advise to wait before starting any treatment. In this waiting period, the close monitoring and behavior of the cancer cells is observed. If the multiple myeloma is not treated when required, then it can cause many complications like infections, bone problems, damaged kidney function and blood cells problems. The prognosis of multiple myeloma usually depends on the condition of the patient, stage of the disease and response to the type of treatment. In advanced stages of multiple myeloma, a combination of treatment can be given to the patient to increase the better response of treatment towards cancer.

Types of Multiple Myeloma Treatment India

There are many options to treat multiple myeloma. These treatment options involve:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Target drug therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Stem cell transplantation
  • Radiation therapy
  • Supportive care

Chemotherapy

The chemotherapy drugs are used to kill or limit the growth of cancer cells. In multiple myeloma, different chemotherapy drugs are used at a time for better response. Some of these drugs are:

  • Bortezomib  
  • Lenalidomide 
  • Cyclophosphamide 

Target Drug Therapy

These drugs are used to limit the nutrition of cancer cells by attacking their environment in which the cancer cells grow. Some of these drugs are:

  • Bortezomib
  • Carfilzomib
  • Ixazomib

Immunotherapy

This treatment involves the use of the body's natural defense mechanism against the tumor growing cells. Some commonly drugs used for multiple myeloma are:

  • Daratumumab
  • Elotuzumab
  • Isatuximab

Stem Cell Transplantation

Healthy stem cells which are either collected from the patient or a donor, are infused to restore the bone marrow and promote the production of healthy blood cells. This treatment is used after the cancer cells are destroyed from other treatments.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy uses high energy rays to destroy the cancer cells. It may be employed to relieve bone pain or treat localized areas of bone destruction caused by multiple myeloma.

Supportive Care

The supportive care treatment is used when the cancer is in the last stage and treatment is directed to improve the quality of life. This may include pain management, antibiotics to treat infections, medications to improve bone strength and blood transfusions.

Diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma Treatment India

Here are Some Diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma

X-ray

The first test performed when a bone cancer is suspected is usually an x-ray of the bone. On an x-ray, tumors show the irregular appearing or like a hole in the bone instead of the solid tumor.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

MRI is used for a more detailed look at a bone abnormality. MRIs are usually able to determine if it is more likely to be a tumor, an infection, or another kind of deep damage to the bones. It can also show the bone marrow and the soft tissues around the cancer, including local blood arteries and nerves.

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

PET scans are useful in determining if bone cancer has spread to the lungs, other bones, or other parts of the body. It can also be used to see the success rate of a treatment or how well the body is responding to the treatment.

Blood and Urine Tests

Several blood and urine tests are performed to find out specific markers that are associated with multiple myeloma. This may include: Immunoglobulin levels and Complete blood count etc.

Biopsy

The tissue cells extracted from the body either from a needle or by open surgery to test them under the laboratory. This will give the confirmed diagnosis of the presence of tumor cells in the bone.

Cost of Multiple Myeloma Treatment in India

In India, the treatment for multiple myeloma may cost from 4600-5000 USD. It may vary according to the procedure which has been selected for the treatment, hospital facilities, doctors’ experience, patients’ health and city.

Different treatments of multiple myeloma and their cost in India:

Treatment Cost in India Min in USD Max in USD
Chemotherapy 300 USD 600 USD
Radiation therapy 3800 USD 5800 USD
Stem cell transplant 18000 USD 20000 USD

Symptoms and Risk factors

Here is a list of symptoms associated with multiple myeloma:

  • Bone pain
  • Fatigue
  • Bone fractures
  • Recurrent infections
  • Kidney problems
  • Anemia
  • Hypercalcemia (elevated levels of calcium)
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Nerve problems
  • Increased susceptibility to bleeding or bruising
  • Frequent infections
  • Weakness or numbness in the legs
  • Shortness of breath
  • Increased thirst and dehydration
  • Constipation
  • Decreased appetite
  • Abdominal pain or discomfort
  • Swelling in the legs
  • Frequent or recurrent bone infections
  • Confusion, memory problems

However, these symptoms are not necessarily present in every individual suffering from multiple myeloma.

Risk Factors of Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma has various risk factors. Some of these are as follows:

Previous Radiation Treatment

The individuals who have been treated with powerful radiations before are more likely to develop bone cancer in the same site they were receiving the radiations. It may represent after many years to even decades. So people who have received radiation therapy should be screened after every 4-5 years.

Age

The age group of 60-70 years are most likely to develop multiple myeloma.

Gender

Multiple myeloma is mostly present in men. So, men are more prone to develop multiple myeloma than women of the same age.

Previous Chemotherapy Session

Some of the drug class used in chemotherapy such as alkylating agents and anthracyclines are the risk factors to develop the bone cancer

Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS)

MGUS is an abnormal protein in the blood. MGUS is a prerequisite condition for multiple myeloma. The individuals with MGUS have an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma.

Obesity

Obesity and poor lifestyle may also increase the risk of multiple myeloma.

Top Hospitals for Multiple Myeloma in India

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Fortis Escorts Hospital, Jaipur Jaipur,India

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Burjeel Medical Hospital City Abu Dhabi,UAE

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Manipal Hospital, Mysore Bengaluru,India

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Vimhans Nayati Super Speciality Hospital New Delhi,India

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Manipal Hospital, Pune Pune,India

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Top Doctors for Multiple Myeloma in India

Empower your Health with the Expertise of Leading Medical Professionals.

Dr. Anita K. Sharma

Department of Gynaecology

Associate Director

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Dr. Sameer A. Tulpule

Department of Bone Marrow Transplant, Medical Oncology & Hematology

Consultant

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Dr. Aditya Murali

Department of Oncology

Consultant

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Dr. Deepak Charles

Department of Oncology

Consultant

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Dr. Ramaswamy N V

Department of Hematology

Senior Consultant

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Treatment Costs for Multiple Myeloma

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How it's Works

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Multiple Myeloma - Frequently Asked Questions

According to studies, the life expectancy of multiple myeloma is 4 years. However, there are some cases when the patients have beaten the odds and lived for 10 to 20 years.

There is no cure for multiple myeloma but the cancer has been managed in many patients for many years.

Multiple myeloma is relatively a dangerous type of cancer that made it the 14th leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S according to SEER./p>

There are no known causes of multiple myeloma but there are triggers related to the disease that includes being exposed to toxic chemicals, radiation, some viruses, immune disorders and family history.

Myeloma starts with one abnormal plasma cell in the bone marrow that multiplies rapidly.

There are three stages of multiple myeloma- Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III. The stages depend on factors including the amount of myeloma cells in the body and the damage the myeloma cells have caused to the bone.