Neurosurgery is the branch of medicine in which the diseases and injuries of the brain, spinal cord, and all the nerves present in the body are diagnosed and treated. Neurosurgery is the major branch in which children and adults are treated according to their type of disease. The diseases involving the brain and spinal cord are more complicated than the disease which involves only a single nerve in the body. In neurosurgery, the tumors are also treated and removed which are the abnormal cell growth in the brain and spinal cord. In neurosurgery, after the diagnosis and treatment, there is a need for rehabilitation that allows the patient to return to normal life just like before the disease. Neurosurgery not only involves the surgical treatment of the brain but it covers a range of diseases like pain in the lower back due to nerve injury, pain in the face due to nerve irritation, and movement disorder in degenerative diseases that occur in old age. Neurosurgical treatments can be traditionally performed in open surgery or they can be performed with the latest technology with minimally invasive methods. In a minimally invasive method, the recovery rate is faster than in the traditional way and causes less damage to healthy areas in the surrounding area during the surgery. Neurosurgeons sometimes work in collaboration with other health experts to fulfill the requirement of treatment for an individual patient. For example, neurosurgeons work with physical therapists and help the patient return to activities of daily living with maximum capacity.
The nervous system in the body is responsible for all the actions in the body and it controls the body with the help of signals that it sends through the nerves to part of the body. There are two types of nervous system. These are:
The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord which is the extension of the brain from the neck to the lower back. The brain detects the information in the form of emotion, thought, and reasoning and sends messages to lower parts of the body to act accordingly. The brain controls all the activities of the body either consciously or unconsciously.
The spinal cord runs from the base of the brain to the lower back and it consists of a bundle of nerves. The spinal cord functions to connect the brain with different parts of the body and helps in different actions of the body.
The Peripheral Nervous System connects the CNS to the rest of the body. In this part of the system, the body sends messages to the brain and then the brain provides instructions and sends back messages to the body for a specific function. It can happen consciously and unconsciously.
Some of the techniques and innovations in the field of neurosurgery are as follows:
In Microsurgery, specialized microscopes and specific instruments are used to perform the procedures on small structures within the brain and spinal cord. This technique allows the surgeon to perform the procedure more accurately and lowers the chances of damage to surrounding healthy tissues.
In Endoscopic techniques, a thin, flexible tube with a camera is used which is called an endoscope. It is used to access and visualize areas within the brain or spine. This minimally invasive approach reduces the need for larger cuts and also speeds up the recovery.
In Radiosurgery, strong radiation is used to treat brain tumors and other abnormalities without the need for traditional surgery. It is a non-invasive procedure that also reduces the chance of damage to healthy tissues.
Robotic systems are used by surgeons to increase the precision of procedures. They are particularly useful for complex surgeries and allow for smaller incisions and quicker recovery.
In deep brain stimulation, an electrode is used to place in the brain that helps in the regulation of abnormal activity of the brain. It is useful in the degenerative diseases of movement disorder.
Unlike traditional methods, minimally invasive techniques help to reduce tissue damage, pain, and recovery time. These include minimally invasive spinal procedures and tumor removal in the brain.
Advanced imaging technologies like MRI and CT scans provide real-time information during surgery. This helps surgeons make informed decisions and ensure the completeness of procedures.
Fluorescent dyes are also used to highlight tissues of tumors during surgery which makes it easier for surgeons to see the difference between healthy and abnormal tissue.
In neurosurgery, some special techniques are used to treat the diseases of blood vessels in the brain. In these techniques, a catheter is used to treat the abnormal blood vessels.
Sometimes the implants and prosthetics are used to treat the condition of a patient. The implants should be according to the patient to ensure a better fit and improved outcomes.
Neurosurgical diagnosis usually starts with the medical history and physical examination of the patient. Advanced imaging techniques such as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and CT (Computed Tomography) scans are used to see a clear picture of the brain and spinal cord structures. It helps to find out the abnormalities like brain or spinal tumors, vascular diseases, or trauma injuries.
Some of the diagnostic methods may include:
Neurosurgery cases are complex so different members of the team work together. They share their knowledge to create a plan according to individual patients. A unique way of surgical treatment is planned according to the individual patient.
In patient care, the patient is treated as a whole and not just the diseased part. In this, a holistic approach is used for the betterment of patients in physical, emotional, and psychological aspects.
The team discusses the condition of each patient. They discuss if surgery is needed, how it should be done, and what could go wrong. All the experts give their opinions to make the best treatment plan for a patient.
In the treatment, all specialists inform each other about the progress of recovery and then change the treatment plan accordingly to achieve the maximum health of the patient.
After the procedure of neurosurgery, there is a need for special care in the intensive care unit (ICU). This type of care is known as neurocritical care. It is like giving extra attention to the brain and nervous system to make sure they are healing well. Doctors and nurses closely watch things like brain pressure, oxygen levels, and other important signs. They use machines and medicines to keep everything balanced and help to recover the brain.
The management of patients after an operation is an important part. During this time, doctors and nurses keep a close eye on the condition of the patient. During this period, medications are used to manage the pain of patients. Some medicines are used to prevent infection and bleeding. There must be special care for wound healing and early mobility of patients to prevent any complications.
Rehabilitation after surgery is the most important part of the recovery process. Rehabilitation is like a special program to help people get better after neurosurgery. The surgeon, therapist, and family members help the patient to recover and go back to normal activities just like before the surgery.
In the physiotherapy department, physiotherapists suggest some exercises for the patient. They help with moving the body, building strength, and improving coordination. For example, after spinal surgery of a patient, physical therapy can help them walk better or move their arms more easily.
Occupational therapy helps with daily activities like eating, dressing, and bathing. Therapists find ways to make these tasks easier if someone is having trouble after surgery.
If the surgery affects the brain and communication, speech therapists can help to improve speaking, understanding, and swallowing of food.
Sometimes, people need to relearn things they knew before the surgery, like writing or using tools. Rehabilitation helps the patient to relearn the task with more ease.
Guiding the patient and family members is also part of the rehabilitation program. Patients must be educated to avoid any complications in the recovery. For this purpose, support and training from surgeons, therapists, and family members are needed.
Neurosurgery techniques for pain management are advanced methods used to help people who are struggling with intense pain. When other treatments like medications or therapies fail to relieve pain, these surgical approaches can offer hope for improved quality of life. These are:
Neuromodulation: This technique uses electrical signals to modify pain pathways and reduce discomfort.
Neuroablative Procedures: In this method, pain pathways are destroyed by applying heat or cold to target nerves.
Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS): In this, electrical impulses are sent near the spinal cord to block pain sensations.
Peripheral Nerve Stimulation: It involves placing electrodes on peripheral nerves to change the pain sensation.
Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) Stimulation: It provides pain relief by blocking the bundle of nerves.
Intrathecal Drug Delivery: In this procedure, pain-relieving medications are delivered directly into the spinal fluid.
Surgical Decompression: The structures that press on nerves to relieve pain caused by compression.
Palliative neurosurgery is a special approach in which surgery is used to increase the comfort and quality of life for individuals who are suffering from end-stage disease of the brain and spinal cord that cannot be completely cured. Unlike curative surgery which helps to eliminate the underlying problem, palliative neurosurgery focuses on decreasing the effect of symptoms on the patient's life such as reducing pain and enhancing the overall well-being of the patient.
In many cases, patients with end-stage disease experience symptoms that affect their comfort and well-being. These symptoms can include pain, limitations in movement, muscle spasms, and other disturbances. Palliative neurosurgery is designed to reduce these symptoms and provide relief, which can lead to improved comfort and a better overall life quality for the patient.
The cost of Neurosurgery in India ranges from 1500 USD to 16,000 USD. The cost can vary according to the type of neurosurgery procedure. The cost can vary according to the protocol of each hospital and the skills of a particular surgeon. The cost can also vary if the patient shows any complications after the surgery. In this case, additional treatment strategy is required which may increase the stay at the hospital and can affect the cost.
|Treatment Costs in India||Min Cost in Dollar||Max Cost in Dollar|
|CyberKnife Treatment||3729 USD||4972 USD|
|Deep Brain Stimulation (non-rechargeable)||12254 USD||16339 USD|
|Neuro Rehabilitation||1332 USD||1776 USD|
|Brain Tumor Surgery||2131 USD||2841 USD|
|Spinal Fusion Surgery||3996 USD||5328 USD|
|Brain Hemorrhage Treatment||2930 USD||3907 USD|
|Gamma Knife for AVM of Brain Tumor||3303 USD||4404 USD|
|Pituitary Tumor Treatment||3463 USD||4617 USD|
|Hydrocephalus Treatment||1865 USD||2486 USD|
|Spine Tumor Surgery||2397 USD||3193 USD|
|Craniotomy Surgery||3516 USD||4688 USD|
|Meningioma||2664 USD||3552 USD|
|Cranioplasty||3623 USD||4830 USD|
|Gliomas Treatment||3196 USD||4262 USD|
|Cerebral Angioplasty||2397 USD||3193 USD|
Some of the indications of neurosurgery are:
Some of the risk factors of Neurosurgery are as follows:
There is a risk of anesthesia reactions like allergy and breathing problems.
There is a risk of bleeding and the formation of blood clots after the surgery which should be managed to prevent any complications.
Surgical procedures have the risk of infection especially in sensitive areas like the brain. But infection can spread to other parts too.
There is a risk of nerve damage that can impair function like hearing sensation. Sometimes surgery leads to organ damage due to poor skills.
Certain health conditions can disturb wound healing after surgery. This can increase the recovery time of patients.
Neurological changes or complications can occur because of the involvement of brain tissues.
Infections, fluid buildup, or poor wound healing at the surgical site can delay the recovery in patients. Sometimes additional treatment is required to manage these complications.
Some patients may feel severe pain and discomfort after surgery and may need medications for a long time to deal with this complication.
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