Orthopedics is a branch of medicine in which the diseases of muscle and bones are diagnosed and treated. This branch of medicine deals with the muscles, joints, bones and connective tissues attached to them. Orthopedic specialists use medications and other interventions like surgical treatment to deal with the disease. The healthcare specialist that deals with the surgical treatment is known as orthopedic surgeon. Any disease related to muscle and bones present at the time of birth and the diseases related to trauma injuries and degenerative joint diseases comes under this branch of medicine. Bones provide support and protection to the body so any injury can lead to inadequate support which decreases the overall quality of life. The orthopedist first tries to treat with medications and other interventions. But when it is impossible to treat the patient with medications, orthopedists go for surgery for example, bone fracture cannot be treated with medicines and it requires surgical management for proper healing. Orthopedic healthcare professionals often work with other healthcare professionals like physiotherapists and physicians to provide the complete treatment plan to individual complicated patients. Rehabilitation after orthopedic surgery is the important part of the recovery process for a patient to go back to normal life just like before the disease or injury.
Some of the important functions of bones are:
Bones provide the framework that supports our body and gives it structure. They form the shape of our body, giving it stability and a form to hold organs, muscles, and other tissues.
Bones act as protective shields for vital organs. For instance, the skull protects the brain, and the ribcage shields the heart and lungs from injury.
Bones work together with muscles to enable movement. Muscles attach to bones with help of tendons and these muscles generate a force to create movement at joints.
Bones store minerals like calcium and phosphorus. These minerals are important for various body functions. If the body needs these minerals, it can release them from the bones into the blood.
The central part of the bone which is known as bone marrow is responsible for the blood cell formation in the body. The blood cells form in there and then perform their specific function in the body.
Some of the orthopedic techniques and innervations used nowadays are as follow:
In open reduction and internal fixation surgical technique, an incision is made to treat the fractured bones and then using screws, plates, or other devices to stabilize the bones as they heal.
Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive procedure where a small camera is inserted into a joint through a small incision. It's used for the diagnosis and treatment of different diseases of joints, muscles and their connective tissues.
In Joint replacement surgery, the damaged or diseased joint is replaced with an artificial implant in order to reduce the effects of symptoms on a patient's daily life.
When the spine becomes unstable and needs the treatment a surgical procedure is performed where different spine bones fused together that promotes the stability in spine. This is known as spinal fusion surgery.
It is used to repair torn ligaments, especially common in the knees and shoulders. Tendon grafts or synthetic materials may be used to replace the damaged ligament.
This involves the use of pins, screws, and rods to stabilize broken bones from the outside. It is often used for complex fractures and to maintain alignment in cases where traditional casts are unable to treat the condition.
Plaster or casts are used to immobilize broken bones during the healing process. Casts are custom-fitted and help to maintain bone alignment.
Traction involves using a pulling force to realign bones or relieve pressure on the spine. It can be used for fractures, instabilities and some spinal conditions.
The minimally invasive surgery involves the smaller incisions during the procedure that allows the faster recovery and less damage to healthy surrounding tissues.
These are substances like stem cells, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and growth factors that can be used to stimulate healing and tissue regeneration in orthopedic injuries.
A surgical technique where bones are cut and reshaped to correct different abnormalities of bones. It is often used in the conditions where abnormal structure of bone limits the movement of joints or causes severe pain.
In this technique, medications, exercises and lifestyle changes are used as a non-surgical method to treat the condition of a patient. It is usually used when the disease is at an early stage and can be treated without surgery.
Computer-guided tools help the surgeon in performing procedures with great ease and skill. This procedure improves the treatment results.
Sometimes a bone graft is implanted which is obtained either by the patient’s own body or by some close family member in order to heal the bones and to restore the function of bones.
The different healthcare professionals work in collaboration to make the best treatment plan for each patient. The healthcare team consists of physicians, orthopedic surgeons, physical therapists and occupational therapists.
Each member of the healthcare team properly investigates the condition of the patient so that no important detail is missing before the planning of treatment. This helps in making a complete treatment plan according to the findings during assessment.
Each patient has a unique set of symptoms and concerns regarding the disease and treatment. With the help of the healthcare team, it is possible to plan the treatment according to the needs of patients.
Multidisciplinary teams work in a holistic approach and treat the patient as a whole and not just the diseased part. It covers the physical, emotional and psychological aspects of disease and helps the patient to overcome the disease in the best way possible.
Rehabilitation is the most important part of the recovery process. It helps the patient to become independent in daily activities and to reduce the pain related to injury. Some of the important aspects of rehabilitation process involves:
Assessment and Goal Setting: Rehabilitation begins with a thorough assessment of the patient's condition that involves the surgical procedure, overall health, and individual goals. Based on this evaluation, specific rehabilitation goals are established.
Physical Therapy: Physical therapists plan exercise programs to improve flexibility, strength, and range of motion in the affected area. These exercises gradually progress to restore normal function and prevent muscle loss.
Pain Management: Techniques like manual therapy, heat or ice pack, ultrasound and gentle exercises help to manage post-surgical pain and swelling.
Mobility Training: Patients learn safe techniques for walking, standing, and performing daily activities with assistive devices if needed, such as sticks or walkers.
Functional Activities: Rehabilitation focuses on relearning important activities like getting in and out of bed, dressing, and using the bathroom.
Balance and Coordination: Exercises that improve balance and coordination are involved to prevent falls and build confidence in movement.
Strength Training: Gradual strengthening exercises helps in rebuilding muscle mass and regain physical stability.
Scar Management: Different techniques are applied by a therapist to minimize scar tissue and improve tissue healing.
Education: Patients and family education is the most important part in rehabilitation. It helps in preventing further injury and pain management.
Home Exercise Programs: Patients are provided with exercises to continue at home to support and speed up their recovery progress.
The doctors make a diagnosis of the specific patient by taking medical history from the patient. Then doctors perform some important physical exams for the diagnosis of a disease.
X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans are used in the orthopedic department to see the clear images of bones, joints, and soft tissues. These imaging techniques are used to diagnose fractures, joint issues, and abnormalities of the structure of bones and joints.
Blood tests can identify certain conditions like arthritis, infections, and autoimmune disorders that affect the musculoskeletal system.
Ultrasound uses the sound waves to provide the image of bones and joints. It may be used to examine muscles and connective tissues.
These tests measure the thickness of bones and help diagnose the conditions in which the bones are weak and more prone to fracture.
Some of the important ways through which orthopedic conditions can be prevented are:
Warm up with gentle stretching before starting any physical activity and cool down afterward can help in preventing muscle stress and injuries.
Proper body mechanics are essential for exercising or performing everyday tasks to avoid stress on joints. This includes lifting with legs and maintaining good posture.
Proper workspace, including chairs, desks, and computer setups should be ergonomically designed to promote proper posture and reduce stress on the body.
Drinking enough water helps keep muscles and joints in maximum functioning.
A diet rich in calcium and vitamin D is essential for maintaining strong bones.
Comfortable and supportive shoes that fit well should be worn. Proper footwear can help prevent foot and ankle problems.
For the elderly, it is important to remove hazards, install handrails, and ensure good lighting at home to prevent fall.
Routine medical checkups can help identify any developing orthopedic issues early.
A variety of exercises can help to avoid overuse injuries. Cross-training helps balance muscle development and reduces strain on specific joints.
Regular stretching exercises improve flexibility and help prevent muscle imbalances that can lead to orthopedic problems.
The cost of orthopedic treatment in India ranges from 1500 USD to 5800 USD. The cost can vary according to the type of joint involved and the condition of the patient at the time of surgery. The cost can also vary according to the skills of the surgeon and the protocol of each hospital.
Some of the costs of treatment in India are as follow:
|Treatment Costs in India||Min Cost in USD||Max Cost in USD|
|Knee Replacement Surgery||2504 USD||3338 USD|
|Revision Single Knee Replacement||3729 USD||4972 USD|
|Knock Knee Surgery||2664 USD||3552 USD|
|Minimally Invasive Knee Replacement Surgery||2131 USD||2841 USD|
|Unicondylar Knee Replacement||1512 USD||2016 USD|
|Bilateral Knee Replacement||3303 USD||4404 USD|
|Spinal Fusion Surgery||3996 USD||5328 USD|
|TLIF Surgery||2237 USD||2983 USD|
|Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF)||2131 USD||2841 USD|
|Spinal Endoscopic Surgery||2930 USD||3907 USD|
|Spondylolisthesis Treatment||2880 USD||3840 USD|
Some of the risk factors of orthopedic diseases are as follow:
With the increasing age, bones become weak and are more prone to fracture due to fall in older age of patients.
A positive family history of any disease related to bones, joints and muscle can be the major risk factor in patients.
Some orthopedic diseases are more likely to happen in men like the stiffness in spine and some of the diseases are common in women like weakness of bone.
Excess of weight can increase the stress on bones and joints and may lead to different diseases of bones and joints.
Reduced activity can weaken the muscles and joints and can severely affect the quality of life of patients in later stages.
Different occupations in which a person has to lift heavy weights or the occupations of long sitting and standing can be the risk of developing orthopedic diseases.
Athletes are more prone to develop traumatic injury during their sports activity.
Maintaining incorrect posture during sitting, standing, or lifting can lead to back and neck issues over time.
Smoking is the major risk factor of weak bones and can cause orthopedic diseases.
Poor diet and insufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D can weaken bones. The weak bones can be easily fractured.
Some medications have the side effects of weak bones and long term use of such medicines can increase the risk of orthopedic conditions.
Trauma and vehicle accidents are the major cause of orthopedic injuries in the young population.
Structural abnormalities that affect the joints can lead to wear and tear over time. These structural abnormalities can complicate the condition and may lead to orthopedic diseases.
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