Overview of TACE For Cancer Treatment India

Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE) is an advanced type of technique that involves a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of liver cancer. In this procedure, some medications are used to kill cancer cells, and an embolic substance is used which destroys the blood vessels of the tumors and limits the blood supply to the tumor which ultimately kills the cancer cells. Both Chemotherapy and Chemoembolization treatments are used for cancer treatments but they work differently. Chemotherapy enters the blood of the patient and kills the cancer cells but chemoembolization targets the tumor directly. In the TACE, a high dose of chemotherapy medications is used because it targets directly to the tumors. Transarterial chemoembolization treatment is used to treat liver cancer but it can also be used to treat different types of cancers that have spread to the liver. TACE procedure for cancer also has some risk factors that can cause complications in patients, especially those who have an already existing medical condition like kidney disease or diabetes. The recovery after TACE is much faster than other cancer treatments and it has a high chance of success without causing damage to the normal functioning of the liver. Most people with liver cancer fully recover after TACE and it improves the life quality of patients.

Types of TACE For Cancer Treatment India

Some types of TACE treatment are:

  • Conventional TACE
  • Drug-Eluting Bead TACE 
  • Radioembolization
  • Transarterial Radioembolization (TARE)
  • Bland Embolization
  • Combination Therapy

Conventional TACE

This is the standard method of chemoembolization in which chemotherapy drugs are mixed with an embolic substance and injected directly into the blood vessels that supply the blood to the tumor. It helps to deliver a high concentration of chemotherapy to the cancerous cells while blocking their blood supply.

Drug-Eluting Bead TACE

In this approach, small beads loaded with chemotherapy drugs are delivered into the blood vessels of the tumor. These beads slowly release the medication over time and provide treatment to the cancer cells for a long time.

Radioembolization

Radioembolization is a type of TACE that uses small radioactive round substances. These substances are injected into the liver and block the small blood vessels near the tumor. They emit radiation directly to the cancer cells and destroy them.

Transarterial Radioembolization (TARE)

Similar to Radioembolization, TARE also uses radioactive small round substances but it targets liver tumors with more accuracy and also minimizes the damage to healthy liver tissue.

Bland Embolization

Unlike conventional TACE, bland embolization does not involve chemotherapy drugs. This treatment focuses on blocking the blood supply of the tumor by using embolic agents like particles or coils which leads to shrinkage of the tumor.

Combination Therapy

Some patients may receive a combination of TACE and other treatments such as surgery, ablation therapy, or targeted therapy. The combination of treatments is used according to the stage and type of liver cancer.

Procedure of TACE

The general overview of the TACE procedure is described below:

Anesthesia: The TACE procedure is performed after the administration of anesthesia so that the patient cannot feel irritation and discomfort during the procedure.

Catheter Insertion: A small incision is made and a catheter or thin flexible tube is inserted into a blood vessel in the thigh through this incision. The catheter is then guided through to reach the blood vessels that supply the tumor in the liver.

Angiography: A contrast dye is injected through the catheter and X-ray imaging is used to visualize the blood vessels of the tumor.

Chemotherapy Injection: A mixture of chemotherapy drugs is injected directly into the blood vessels of the tumor. This allows for a concentrated dose of medication to target the cancer cells and kill them.

Embolization: After the chemotherapy injection, an embolic substance is injected through the catheter. These substances block the blood vessels and reduce the blood flow to the tumor. 

Monitoring: Throughout the procedure, the medical team monitors the progress by using X-ray guidance to ensure that the tumor is being effectively treated and that normal liver tissue function is not disturbed.

Catheter Removal: Once the treatment is complete, the catheter is removed and pressure is applied to the incision site for the prevention of bleeding.

Recovery: After the procedure, most patients recover without any complications of the procedure. Some patients may experience some side effects like pain, nausea, or fever which can be managed with medications.

Cost of TACE Treatment in India

The cost of TACE treatment in India ranges from 3700 USD to 5000 USD. The cost can vary according to the type of TACE procedure used in the treatment. The cost can also vary according to the complications of each patient.

Treatment Costs in India Min in USD Max in USD
Transarterial Chemoembolization 3729 USD 4972 USD

Symptoms and Risk factors

Indications of TACE

Some of the conditions that can be treated with TACE are:

  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
  • Liver metastases from colorectal cancer
  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the liver
  • Hepatic angiosarcoma
  • Hepatic hemangioma 
  • Hepatic adenomas 
  • Hepatic sarcomas 
  • Metastatic ocular melanoma
  • Metastatic breast cancer to the liver

Risk Factors of TACE

Some of the risk factors that are associated with TACE are as follows:

Liver Dysfunction

TACE may have higher risks for individuals with severely compromised liver function such as patients with advanced cirrhosis are at greater risk.

Kidney Dysfunction

Individuals with impaired kidney function also have increased risks due to the contrast dye used during the procedure.

Allergies

Some patients show allergic reactions to contrast dye or medications used during TACE.

Bleeding Disorders

Patients with bleeding disorders or taking blood-thinning medications may have a higher risk of bleeding complications during or after the procedure.

Infection

There is a risk of infection at the insertion site or within the liver after the TACE procedure.

Post-Embolization Syndrome

Many patients experience flu-like symptoms, abdominal pain, and fever after the procedure of TACE. These complications can be irritating for patients.

Liver Damage

TACE can cause temporary liver damage which is a risk for individuals with pre-existing liver disease.

Nausea and Vomiting

Some people may experience nausea and vomiting after TACE which can lead to dehydration.

Damage to Nearby Organs

In rare cases, the embolic material used during TACE may unintentionally block blood vessels to nearby organs which can lead to further complications.

Treatment Costs for TACE for Cancer

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