Overview of TESA Treatment India

TESA is a surgical treatment that is used to treat infertility. This treatment is used to obtain sperm from the male partner. This surgical treatment is used when a female partner is unable to get pregnant due to the problem of male infertility. When a male partner is unable to ejaculate enough sperms through sexual intercourse, TESA surgical procedure is used to extract sperms from the testicles by using small incisions. TESA is used when sperms are produced in the testes but are blocked by some reason that limits the release of semen. TESA can also be used for conditions in males where semen enters the urinary bladder instead of going through the urethra. This procedure is often used in combination with other treatments like IVF, where doctors obtain eggs from female partners and choose sperm from the TESA procedure to fertilize in the laboratory. Although TESA is a safe procedure, doctors still recommend this procedure according to the cause of infertility in males, the age of the male at the time of the procedure, and the purpose of the procedure. Sometimes TESA technique is also used to store the sperm for future use when the male patient has to receive aggressive treatments like radiation therapy or chemotherapy that can affect the sperm count.

Types of TESA Treatment India

There are types of TESA according to the type of technique used in the procedure. These are:

  • Conventional TESA
  • Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction (micro-TESE)
  • Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE)
  • Testicular Sperm Aspiration with Mapping
  • Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA)

Conventional TESA

In the conventional technique of TESA, a thin needle is inserted directly into the testicle, and a small amount of testicular tissue is obtained. The tissue is then examined in the laboratory with special tools to identify and extract healthy sperm cells for fertility techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction (micro-TESE)

This is a more advanced technique as compared to conventional TESA. Micro-TESE involves the use of advanced surgical tools to find and extract sperm from the testicular tissue. This method is particularly useful for men with very low sperm counts as it allows for the accuracy of the procedure and retrieval of healthy sperm. It also lowers the risk of damage to the testicular tissue.

Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE)

TESE is another type of technique that involves both conventional TESA and micro-TESE. It is an advanced surgical procedure in which sperm is obtained directly from the testicles. The conventional or microdissection approach can be used in combination for complicated patients.

Testicular Sperm Aspiration with Mapping (TESA-M)

TESA-M is a specialized procedure that involves examining the testicular tissue to identify areas with the highest sperm concentration. This is known as mapping. It helps to improve the chances of successful sperm retrieval, especially in complicated cases where sperm production is very low due to some reason.

Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA)

Fine needle aspiration technique is another type of technique where an advanced type of needle is used to obtain the sperms from testicles. It can be a less invasive method as compared to conventional TESA and can be used as an alternative method but it may not be suitable for all patients.

Procedure of TESA

The overview of the procedure of TESA is described below:

Anesthesia: Anesthesia is administered to the patient to reduce the effect of pain and discomfort during the procedure. 

Accessing the Testicle: After the administration of anesthesia, the healthcare provider uses a fine needle to access the testicle. This needle is inserted into the testicular tissue for the retrieval of sperm.

Aspiration: The surgeon uses a gentle suction force on a small amount of testicular tissue to aspirate the sperms through the needle. The tissue which contains sperm is then collected and stored for future use.

Sperm Retrieval: The healthiest sperm is separated from the testicular tissue. These sperm can then be used for assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Recovery: Patients are usually monitored for a short period after the procedure to confirm there are no complications due to the TESA procedure. Pain and discomfort are common for a short time but these complications can be resolved within two to three days.

Cost of TESA procedure in India

The cost of the TESA procedure in India ranges from 215 USD to 285 USD. The cost can vary according to the type of technique used in the procedure or the instruments used in the procedure. The cost can also vary according to the skills of the surgeon and the complications of each patient.

Treatment Costs in India Min in USD Max in USD
TESA Treatment 215 USD 285 USD

Symptoms and Risk factors

Indications of TESA

Some of the indications where the TESA surgical procedure is used are:

  • No sperm release in ejaculation
  • Very low sperm count or sperm production
  • Blockage in the male reproductive tract
  • Previous failed sperm retrieval methods
  • Fertility preservation
  • Before the use of aggressive treatments like chemotherapy
  • Sperms going backward into the bladder
  • Failed vasectomy revision surgery

Risk Factors of TESA

Some of the risk factors of TESA are described below:

Pain and Discomfort

TESA can cause a slight or moderate type of pain in the surgical area during or after the completion of the procedure. This complication is usually temporary and can be dealt with medications but it can vary from person to person.


There is a risk of infection at the site of incision or the injection site. The infection can spread anywhere and can create other complications.

Bleeding and Hematoma

There is a risk of bleeding during or after the procedure of TESA. Blood clots can form in the surgical area and can create many complications and life-threatening situations.

Tissue Damage

In some cases, the TESA procedure can lead to damage to the tissues which can affect future sperm production. The risk is higher when the procedure is performed with poor skill and technique.

Allergic Reaction

There is also a risk of adverse reactions or allergic reactions for some people to medication or tools used during the procedure of TESA. However, not every patient has the risk of developing allergic reactions.

Failure to Retrieve Sperm

In certain cases, TESA may not be successful in obtaining enough healthy sperm for assisted reproductive techniques which can lead to disappointment for the patient and their partner.

Post-procedure Pain and Swelling

Some patients develop swelling and pain after the procedure. This can be temporary and may resolve on its own without any additional treatment.

Sperm Quality

The sperm obtained through the procedure of TESA can have poor quality like genetic abnormalities and lower motility. The poor quality of sperm can affect the success of reproductive procedures for the treatment of infertility.

Treatment Costs for TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration)

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