Overview of Throat Cancer Surgery Treatment India

The cancer that develops in the throat region and the voice box which is starting from behind the nose to the neck region is termed as throat cancer. So there are two structures involved here, pharynx and larynx (voice box). Almost every type of throat cancer develops in the same cell type but according to the regions involve they are classified as nasopharyngeal cancer (the area behind the nose), oropharyngeal cancer (the part of the mouth where tonsils are present), laryngopharyngeal cancer (the area just above the food pipe and windpipe in throat), glottic cancer (in the voice box), supraglottic and subglottic cancer (upper and lower part of the voice box). From all of the types the oropharyngeal cancer is the most common type of throat cancer. The people that use different types of carcinogens like in cigarette smoking or have exposure in their work are the most likely to become victims of throat cancer. Sometimes throat cancer can also be called head and neck cancer. Throat cancer is less common as compared to the other cancers. Usually it is estimated to be 0.7 -1.8 throat cancer cases more than other cancers. The prognosis of the throat cancer is largely based on the type of the throat cancer. Throat cancer can be prevented by taking a healthy diet and changing the sedentary lifestyle into an active lifestyle.

Types of Throat Cancer Surgery Treatment India

The treatment options that are available in throat cancer are the typical treatment to deal with any cancer. Some of them are:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Targeted drug therapy
  • Surgery

Chemotherapy

The drugs that enter the body either taken by mouth or by injection are used to kill or limit the growth of the cancer cells. They are used when cancer has spread widely or in combination with other treatment options. Some of the drugs are: 

  • carboplatin 
  • paclitaxel
  • docetaxel
  • methotrexate

Radiation Therapy

The use of high energy X-rays to kill the cancer cells is another treatment option. In radiation therapy, there are different procedures to kill the cancer cells. These are:

Intensity modulated radiotherapy: is the use of x-rays from different angles to target the tumor through the source outside the body.

Brachytherapy: is the implantation of the radioactive substance, which kills the tumor cells by emitting its strong rays.

Immunotherapy

This treatment prepares the body's natural defense mechanism to fight against the tumor cells. They work specifically on cancer cells and limit the damage of normal cells. The drugs widely used are:

  • Pembrolizumab
  • Nivolumab

Target Drug Therapy

These drugs limit the production of proteins that are responsible for the growth of tumor cells. By blocking the proteins, cancer cells become deprived of their nutrition. In this way, they limit and kill the growth of cancer cells.

Surgery

Some surgical procedures are used to treat throat cancer. These are:

Cordectomy:  The vocal cords are removed entirely or partially during this treatment.

Laryngectomy:  this treatment removes either all or part of your voice box. Some people can speak after surgery but some have difficulty.

Pharyngectomy: in this treatment, an area of your throat is removed.

Dissection of neck: if the cancer has spread to the other areas there might be a need to remove part of your lymph nodes.

Diagnosis of Throat Cancer Surgery Treatment India

Diagnosis of throat cancer:

Endoscopy

During this technique, a special light scope is used to get an up-close look of your throat. It forms the images from a camera at the end of the endoscope on a video screen to look for any indications of abnormalities in your throat.

Laryngoscopy

This procedure examines the larynx. It helps in examining the vocal cords by using a magnifying lens.

Biopsy

A piece of tissue is extracted from the throat and examined in the laboratory, which gives the confirmed diagnosis of the throat cancer.

CT-scan

CT scan gives a detailed picture of the tissue presence and helps to locate the tumor.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

MRI gives the idea of the size of tumor and the extent to which the cancer has spread.

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

It is an advanced technique to give the colorful image of the throat cancer, which gives the idea of the tissue appearance and any abnormality with it.

Cost of Throat Cancer in India

According to the type of treatment, the average cost of throat cancer treatment in India may vary from 4,000 USD to 9,500 USD. The treatment can vary from city to city, hospital to hospital, patient to patient and also the stage at which the cancer has been diagnosed. Some of the procedures used in India and their cost is described below:

Different treatment procedures and their cost in India:

Treatment Costs in India Min in USD Max in USD
Surgery 2419.4 USD 9679 USD
Radiotherapy 1814 USD 4234 USD
Chemotherapy 363 USD 24198 USD
Others 120 USD 190 USD

Symptoms and Risk factors

Throat cancer has some signs and symptoms and there should be a concern about health if any of the following symptoms present for the past few days. Symptoms may not be present in each individual as every individual has its unique way of the presentation of the disease.

  • Trouble in swallowing
  • Trouble in speaking
  • Voice change
  • Sore throat
  • Cough with blood
  • Whistle sound in breathing
  • Fever
  • Ear pain
  • Hoarseness in voice
  • Swelling 
  • Palpable mass in neck region
  • Nausea
  • A frequent need to clear the throat.

Risk Factors for Throat Cancer

Tobacco Use

People who smoke tobacco are more likely to develop throat cancer. As it is a carcinogenic substance. The tobacco smokers and the passive smokers both are equally at the great risk to develop many types of cancer including throat cancer.

Alcohol Use

There is a positive correlation between the alcohol consumption and development of throat cancer. The cells in the throat become irritated by constant use of alcohol and become abnormal, which makes it easier to develop cancer in the throat.

Viral Infections

Some viral infections are major risk factors to throat cancer. For example, the human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-barr virus are associated with developing the throat cancer post infection. The females are at greater risk after HPV infection.

Diet

Unhealthy diet causes the accumulation of wastes in the body and causes abnormal reactions of the tissue cells. The lack of vegetables and fruits in the diet can increase the risk of developing the cancers in the body and also include throat cancer.

GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the major risk factor associated with developing the cancer in the mouth and throat.

Exposure to Carcinogens

Exposure to certain harmful substances like Asbestos in some occupations can greatly increase the chances of lung and throat cancer.

Chewing Betel, Quid and Gutka

In India, the betel, quid and gutka are common practice among the citizens, especially the male population. Use of excessive gutka can increase the chances of throat and oral cancer.

High BMI

The chances of developing throat cancer increases as the weight increases. People who are obese and have high BMI can seriously be affected by the throat and liver cancer in the later stages of their life.

Age

Throat cancer is more commonly present in the age group of 45-60 years. 

Oral Hygiene

There is a positive correlation between poor oral hygiene and the chances of developing oral and throat cancer. Sometimes, the poor hygiene develops the oral cancer and it spreads to other areas and can ultimately cause throat cancer.

Top Hospitals for Throat Cancer Surgery in India

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Burjeel Medical Hospital City Abu Dhabi,UAE

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Gleneagles Global Health City Perumbakkam , Chennai,India

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Manipal Hospital, Mysore Bengaluru,India

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Manipal Hospital, Pune Pune,India

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Jaypee Hospitals, Noida, Uttar Pradesh India

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Metro Hospital Faridabad,India,

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Indraprastha Apollo Hospital New Delhi

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Metro Hospital Faridabad,India,

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Top Doctors for Throat Cancer Surgery in India

Empower your Health with the Expertise of Leading Medical Professionals.

Dr. Nagamani YS

Department of ENT

Consultant

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Dr. Ertan Yildirim

Department of ENT

Specialist

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Dr. Surender Kumar Dabas

Department of Surgical Oncology & Oncology

Senior Director

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Dr. W.V.B.S. Ramalingam

Department of ENT

Senior Director

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Dr. Idiculla. K. Mathews

Department of ENT

HOD

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Treatment Costs for Throat Cancer Surgery

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Throat Cancer Surgery - Frequently Asked Questions

If diagnosed in the early stage, throat cancer has high survival rates and one can continue treatment to slow the progression of the disease.

The throat is a complicated part of the body and performing surgery on the throat is risky. There are some complications that may arise, such as infection, bleeding, difficulty in swallowing or speaking.

It depends on the type of surgery performed and part of the larynx (voice box) removed. In total laryngectomy, the whole voice box is removed and the patient won't be able to speak using vocal cords.

The total recovery time is 1 month.