Overview of VSD Closure Surgery Treatment in India

A Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) is a defect in which there is a hole between the lower parts of the heart. When there is a hole present, then there is a mixing of oxygen-rich blood and oxygen-poor blood which causes damage to the heart and lungs. It can also increase the chances of other complications of the heart. In mild cases of VSD, there is no need for treatment and the hole closes on its own but when the hole is large enough, then there will be a need to perform surgery to close the hole between the two sides of the heart. and the surgery is known as VSD Closure Surgery.

The cost of VSD Closure surgery in India ranges from ₹ 3,66,500 to ₹ 4,48,500. VSD is mostly present in children but in 10% of cases, VSD is also present in adults. VSD in adults is mostly due to some existing heart conditions or the effect of some medicines. VSD closure surgery is effective in improving symptoms and the overall quality of life of the patient.

Types & Procedure of VSD Closure Surgery Treatment in India

Many types of VSD closure surgery should be performed according to the condition of each patient. These are:

  • Open-Heart Surgery
  • Transcatheter Closure
  • Robotic-Assisted Surgery
  • Hybrid Procedure
  • Percutaneous Techniques

Open-Heart Surgery

This is the traditional method where the chest is opened, and the heart is accessed. The surgeon directly sutures or patches the hole in the lower part of the heart by using a patch that is made of synthetic material or animal tissue.

Transcatheter Closure

In this minimally invasive procedure, a catheter is threaded through blood vessels to the heart. A device that usually plugs is then guided to the VSD site and is placed to close the hole. With time, tissue grows over the device and seals the defect in the lower part of the heart.

Robotic-Assisted Surgery

This method involves small incisions and the use of robotic arms that are controlled by the surgeon. It is less invasive than traditional open-heart surgery. It has the advantage of faster recovery than open heart surgery.

Hybrid Procedure

Sometimes, a combination of catheter-based intervention and surgical repair is used, especially for patients with complex VSDs. This approach allows for an individualized treatment plan.

Percutaneous Techniques

There is the latest technique of percutaneous methods. In this type of approach, specialized closure devices are used that have the advantage of less invasive options for certain types of VSDs.

Procedure of VSD closure surgery

The general overview of the VSD closure surgery is as follows:

Anesthesia: The anesthesia is administered to lower the feeling of pain and discomfort during the surgical procedure.

Incision: The incision is made at the center of the chest of the patient to access the heart. The size of the incision can vary for each patient.

Cardiopulmonary Bypass: The patient's blood is passed through a heart-lung machine, which can perform the function of the heart and lungs for some time.

Closure of VSD: The surgeon identifies the VSD and carefully stitches or patches the hole using synthetic material or tissue from the patient's own body. The choice of technique depends on the size and location of the defect.

Assessment: After closing the VSD, the surgeon ensures that the repair is secure and doesn't impede blood flow within the heart.

Weaning from Bypass: Once the repair is completed, the heart is gradually allowed to resume its normal pumping function. The patient is gradually weaned off the heart-lung machine.

Closure: Any incisions are closed by using sutures and the chest is closed.

Recovery: In the recovery phase, the medications are used to prevent infection and formation of blood clots. A gradual increase in physical activity is recommended during the recovery phase.

Cost of VSD Closure Surgery Treatment in India

The cost of VSD Closure surgery in India ranges from ₹ 3,66,500 to ₹ 4,48,500. The cost can vary according to the type of procedure performed in VSD closure. The cost can also vary according to the complications of each case during or after the surgery.

VSD Closure Treatment in India Min in INR Max in INR
VSD Closure Surgery ₹ 3,12,560 ₹ 3,85,500
VSD Treatment ₹ 3,66,592 ₹ 4,49,000
Device Closure ₹ 2,03,680 ₹ 2,75,240


VSD Closure Surgery Costs in Different Cities of India 

VSD Closure Syrgery Costs in Different Cities of India Min in INR Max in INR
New Delhi ₹ 1,79,000 ₹ 2,83,000
Gudgaon ₹ 1,83,500 ₹ 2,77,500
Noida ₹ 1,72,000 ₹ 2,90,000
Chennai ₹ 1,83,000 ₹ 2,64,000
Mumbai ₹ 1,88,000 ₹ 2,85,000
Banglore ₹ 1,79,000 ₹ 2,73,000
Kolkata ₹ 1,72,000 ₹ 2,61,000


Symptoms & Risk Factors of VSD Closure Surgery Treatment

Indications of VSD Closure Surgery

Some of the diseases that require VSD closure surgery are:

  • Hemodynamic Instability
  • Large VSD with Significant Shunting
  • Heart Failure Symptoms
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Failure of Medical Management
  • Elevated Lung-to-Systemic Flow Ratio
  • Recurrent Respiratory Infections
  • Left Ventricular Enlargement
  • Endocarditis (Infection of the Heart Lining)
  • Development of Aortic Valve Regurgitation
  • Progressive Heart Rhythm Abnormalities
  • Ineffective Medication Management

Risk factors of VSD closure Surgery

Some of the risk factors that are associated with VSD closure surgery are as follows:

Anesthesia Risks

There is a risk of allergic reactions, breathing difficulties, or adverse reactions to anesthesia medications.


Like any other surgery, VSD closure surgery also has the risk of surgical site infections or infections affecting the heart or other organs.


Excessive bleeding can occur during or after surgery and can require blood transfusions to manage this complication.


After VSD closure surgery, Irregular heart rhythms can occur that can further complicate the healing process.

Residual VSD

There is a possibility of a small remaining hole after surgery. It may require further treatment of medication and even surgery.

Device Complications

For VSD in the type of transcatheter closure, there are risks including device displacement, infection of the device, or other device-related issues.

Blood Clots

There is a risk of the formation of blood clots in the heart or blood vessels during or after the closure of the incision.


Blood clot formation in the vessels can travel to the blood vessels of the brain and can create the complication of stroke.

Fluid Accumulation

Accumulation of fluid around the heart or lungs is also a risk after the open heart surgery of VSD closure.


After the surgery, Scar tissue formation in the heart or blood vessels can interrupt the functioning of the heart.

Need for Re-intervention

If the initial surgical repair of VSD closure is not successful, then there will be a need for additional open heart surgery to perform the procedure that can worsen the condition of the patient.

Allergic Reactions

Some patients show allergic reactions to medications, materials used in surgery, and the effect of anesthesia.

Treatment Costs for VSD Closure Surgery

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FAQ's of VSD Closure Surgery Treatment in India

Risks include infection, bleeding, irregular heart rhythms, and the need for additional interventions.

Patients typically spend a few days in the hospital and a few weeks to a couple of months for complete healing.

Transcatheter closure, using catheters and devices, is an alternative to open-heart surgery for certain cases.

The success rate is generally high, with most patients experiencing improved heart function and quality of life.